Doctor Determine Treatment Research Proposal

Pages: 3 (1091 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Anatomy

To help the doctor determine where the defect might have occurred:

1. Explain what would happen to the amount of energy available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell (i.e., a muscle cell).

The Cori cycle refers to the metabolic pathway where lactate created by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles flows to the liver and is converted to glucose, which once again is absorbed by the muscles and is converted back to lactate.

The other half of the Cori cycle occurs where, instead of lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation massing UP inside the muscle cells, the lactate is transferred to the liver where gluconeogenesis occurs. Gluconeogenesis converts lactate into glucose (is supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream) by converting the glucose first into pyruvate. The Cori cycle needs multiple cells for its effectiveness. If it were limited / confined to one cell, the entire process would fail.

2. Construct a dynamic diagram to show the doctor why the citric acid cycle is central to aerobic metabolism.

Note: A dynamic diagram should be clearly labeled and include arrows to show movement and interactions.

The citric acid cycle is the first stage in metabolism which consists of removing high-energy electrons from carbon fuels (left). Those electrons then generate a steep proton high (middle), which creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP )(right). The two together (the entire process / synthesis) creates aerobic metabolism (Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)).

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3. Explain where in the citric acid cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in response to an increased energy need and how the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP.

The citric acid cycle generates electrons from carbon fuels. ATP is created by the citric acid cycle extracting the electrons from the coenzyme CoA and using these electrons to create and synthesize NADH and FADH2.

Research Proposal on Doctor Determine Treatment for a Assignment

electrons released in the reoxidation of NADH and FADH2 flow through a series of membrane proteins which then flow through the ATP pathway to produce ATP from ADP and from the non-organic phosphate. The hypothetical defect of the enzyme would come about in electrons released by NADH and FADH2.( Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)

4. Explain the role of coenzyme Q10 in ATP synthesis as part of the electron transport chain.

Coenzyme Q. carries the electrons to the cytochrome bc1 pathway which also breaks down enzymes into fructose and energy via metabolism and generates 95% of the body's energy in the form of ATP. Since the molecule can exist in both a completely reduced and oxidized form, it can perform both functions simultaneously. (Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford)


Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman

Cross NC, de Franchis R, Sebastio G, et al. (1990). Molecular analysis of aldolase B. genes in hereditary fructose intolerance. Lancet 335 (8685): 306 -- 9

Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford Coenzyme Q10: An Antioxidant Drug

Genetics Home Ref. Hereditary fructose intolerance [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Doctor Determine Treatment" Research Proposal in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Doctor Determine Treatment.  (2013, March 13).  Retrieved June 22, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Doctor Determine Treatment."  13 March 2013.  Web.  22 June 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Doctor Determine Treatment."  March 13, 2013.  Accessed June 22, 2021.