Term Paper: Domestic Violence and Low Birth Weight

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Domestic Violence in Pregnancy and Low Birth-Weight Infants

Implications for the Nurse in Care Delivery

Domestic Violence and Low Birth Weight Babies

The specific responsibility and one of the most vital factors is the critical assessment of the nurse, nurse practitioner and the treating physician of the pregnant women who is a victim of abuse. The pursuit of conducting a study or monitoring abuse of women cannot be a conclusive study if the nurse specifically does not critically monitor patients that the data applies to in terms of abuse such as socio-economic factors, educational attainment level, age, and other indicators not as readily evident. It is the nurse who assess the patient / expectant mother, and the nurse who will ultimately impact the lives of the mother and the infant either positively or negligently depending on the focus and perceptional ability of the nurse, nursing practitioner, or personal physician. The difficulty appears to lie within the structure of the medical system, which the most needy of patients as to age, risks factors and nutritional imbalances are perpetuated among due to low socioeconomic status on a societal level. Becker, Patricia & Grunwald, Patricia (2000) the Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing article entitled "Contextual Dynamics of Ethical Decision Making in the NICU" states that: The manner in which the contextual dynamics of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) culture influence decisions around withholding and withdrawing treatment for very low birth weight infants is examined based on sociological studies of the NICU culture. The influence of these dynamics on nurse and parent participation in treatment decisions is discussed. Steps toward increasing nurses' role in decision making and ability to empower the participation of parents include (a) using an understanding of the dynamics of the individual NICU to establish a collaborative team culture, and (b) demonstrating that data obtained through relationship with the infant make an important and valid contribution to ethical decision making. Further research in relation to domestic abuse, specifically as to the detection of, the treatment and prevention of abuse to women and infants during pregnancy is a vital matter particularly in light of the implications that low birthweight may contribute to a lifetime of health problems in individuals and that the problems may be of various types of medical complications and the development of disease in the LBW individual.

Purpose

The purpose of this study and review of literature is to examine the role of the nurse in delivery of healthcare services to mother's and their infants from the onset of need of care across to end of services needed by the mother and infant that should be the provision of the nurse in this specific role.

Statement of Objective

The objective of this work in writing is to establish in evidentiary research findings recorded in literature the impact that domestic violence during the course of a pregnancy has upon the infant in relation to contributing to low birth weight among newborn infants.

Methodology

The method of research will be through literature review of peer-reviewed journals and will be qualitative as well as quantitative in nature as the findings in research evidence will carry great weight on their own merit and consensus will also be considered a validation of findings in the study. Delineation of the role of delivery nurses will be conducted as well as the nurse in the role of the newborn caretaker.

Introduction

Birth weight is a major determinant of infant and child health and mortality. Birth weight of less than 2.5 kilograms is considered low. (Maternal and Child Health, 2003) Studies reveal that care for infants begin while the infant is yet unborn and is affected greatly by the mothers. Infant mortality is a critical indicator of today's health population particularly in relation overall state of health concerns. SIDS is, or, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is one of the leading killers of infant children

Delineation of the Role of Delivery Nurses and Newborn Caretaker

The Maternal and Child Health and Children with Special Health Care Needs MCH/CSHCN Program Manual states that outreach is the "early identification through the High Priority Infant Identification and Tracking System for high-risk infants and pregnant women. Within the scope of this program the Nurse's duties are as follows:

Provides direct nursing care to individuals with attention to physical, developmental, psychosocial, and emotional habilitation/rehabilitation needs; Provides health education including, but not limited to, current health status and diet. Health education concerning immunizations and developmental status to be provided to families with children; Promotes and teaches health maintenance and a high level of wellness throughout the lifespan; Assist families and individuals with the coping process; Works collaboratively with other disciplines in identifying and meeting the physical, psychological, social and emotional and habilitations needs of individuals; Promotes and participates in early identification and outreach activities; Assesses the development status of infants, children, and adolescents; Assess the current strengths and concerns of family members and incorporates these into the plan of care; Accepts primary responsibility for coordinating the management of care an ensuring follow-up services; Completes a nursing history on all individuals seen in the clinic; Initiates and participates in case conferences in concert with other health care and community service; providers; Makes home visits as appropriate for coordination and continuity of patient care; Provides nursing consultation to individuals, their families, other team members and the community regarding; management of health needs and the need for referral and continuity of service; Supervises and identifies clinic activities performed by non-professional personnel; Identifies and utilizes appropriate Department of Health and other resources to meet the needs of individuals; and their families; Advocates for the needs of individuals and their families; Performs clinic functions in relation to medical records, lab results, assuring medical records are complete,; performing or scheduling screenings, including developmental assessments and that as ordered by the physician as well as Assisting physicians with examinations and procedures"

In seeking determination of the prevalence of incidents of physical abuse and oftentimes emotional/psychological/sexual and other forms of accompanying abuse study is vital in dealing with the low birth-weight infant and the health implications assigned to low birth-weight in terms of the future health aspects that accompany being a LBW individual. The specific responsibility and one of the most vital factors is the critical assessment of the nurse, nurse practitioner and the treating physician of the pregnant women who is a victim of abuse. The pursuit of conducting a study or monitoring abuse of women cannot be a conclusive study if the nurse specifically does not critically monitor patients that the data applies to in terms of abuse such as socio-economic factors, educational attainment level, age, and other indicators not as readily evident. It is the nurse who assess the patient / expectant mother, and the nurse who will ultimately impact the lives of the mother and the infant either positively or negligently depending on the focus and perceptional ability of the nurse, nursing practitioner, or personal physician. The difficulty appears to lie within the structure of the medical system, which the most needy of patients as to age, risks factors and nutritional imbalances are perpetuated among due to low socioeconomic status on a societal level. Becker, Patricia & Grunwald, Patricia (2000) the Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing article entitled "Contextual Dynamics of Ethical Decision Making in the NICU" states that: The manner in which the contextual dynamics of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) culture influence decisions around withholding and withdrawing treatment for very low birth weight infants is examined based on sociological studies of the NICU culture. The influence of these dynamics on nurse and parent participation in treatment decisions is discussed. Steps toward increasing nurses' role in decision making and ability to empower the participation of parents include (a) using an understanding of the dynamics of the individual NICU to establish a collaborative team culture, and (b) demonstrating that data obtained through relationship with the infant make an important and valid contribution to ethical decision making. The Maternal and Neonatal Health Program at John Hopkins University for Education on Gynecology and Obstetrics (p.12) contains a published wall chart that outlines the responsibilities as well as actions that various responsibilities and action that various actors need to take in order to ensure that pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period are all successful According to one report there were approximately 4 million newborn infants died during the year 2003. Many times simple intervention is the crucial factor that makes the difference between life and/or death and lifelong health problems and complications for the infant. That is the precise multi-variable role tasked to the nurse whose specialization field is delivery nurse or infant caretaker nurse in today's healthcare provision services. To understand the structure of this task viewing time-oriented factors this is the time of the pregnancy described as follows:

The vulnerable period for mothers and their newborns is during the period immediately following delivery which is the time when over 60% of maternal deaths occur, or… [END OF PREVIEW]

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/domestic-violence-low-birth-weight/117431.