Term Paper: Dominican Republic

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Dominican Republic

Taino Indians used to inhabit the island, which was named by Christopher Columbus Hispaniola for at least 5,000 years prior to his discovery of America for the Europeans. The inhabitants of Taino were very gentle, liberal, and accommodating with the Europeans, due to which, they became soft targets to rule over them. Apart from that, the Europeans also noted that Taino had gold ornaments and jewelry from the gold deposits found in the rivers of Hispaniola. Afterwards, the Spaniards became atrocious, and to set themselves free from the clutches of Spaniards, several adopted the ploy of deserting their villages and setting their crops on fire. They escaped to the less welcoming regions of the island, constituting Cimarron colonies, or escaped to other islands and also into the mainland. Smallpox began in the island in 1518 and with it the death rate of the Tainos stepped up.

Following 25 years of colonial rule by Spanish there were less than 50,000 Taino inhabiting the Spanish controlled regions of the island. In the space of the next generation, among the living roughly everybody had become biologically intermingled with the Spaniards, Africans, or other mixed breed people and had become the tripartite people currently recognized as Dominicans. Certain modern historians have categorized the behavior of Spaniards meted out against the Taino as mass murders. By 1515, the Spaniards understood that the gold mines of Hispaniola were being depleted. Roughly all of a sudden, the colony that was usually known as Santo Domingo after its capital city was deserted and just a few numbers of Spanish immigrants stayed back. Hispaniola's significance as a colony came to be more and more diminished. (History of the Dominican Republic)

Till the middle of the 17th century, the profile of the settlers consisted of smugglers, escaped orderly servants and crewmembers of several European ships in the islands of Tortuga, situated to the western part of Cap Haiten. This region turned out to be the selection platform for voyage charted by the several infamous pirates, including the prominent British pirate Henry Morgan. The western third of Hispaniola came under French occupation known as Saint Domingue in 1697 and till the next century grew into, till then, one of the wealthiest settlement in the globe. Encouraged by the episodes happening in France at the time of the French Revolution and through the clashes among the whites and mulattos in the Saint Domingue, slave mutiny erupted in the French colony during 1791, and was ultimately spearheaded by Toussaint L'ouverture a French Black man.

Even though L'ouverture and his descendant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines was successful in restoring peace and refurbishing the economy of Saint Domingue that has been severely damaged, the new leader in France, Napoleon Bonaparte, was unable to bear that the wealthiest colony was France was headed by a Black man. The Black militia certainly overthrew the French and the Blacks proclaimed their freedom, setting up the Republic of Haiti on the Western third of the island of Hispaniola. The French reclaimed the administration of the eastern portion of the island, nevertheless, and thereafter during 1809 restored this piece to the Royal Spanish regime. In 1882, the terrified French would unleash one more voyage from Spanish Santo Domingo to restore slavery, which they had intimidated to perform previously, Haiti's president Jean-Pierre Boyer dispatched an army that attacked and annexed the eastern region of Hispaniola. (History of the Dominican Republic)

For the forthcoming 22 years, the entire island of Hispaniola came under Haitian rule-Dominicans term the phase "The Haitian Occupation." During the 1830s a subversive confrontation group La, Trinitaria was prearranged under the headship of Juan Pablo Duarte. Following several rounds of assaults on the Haitian militia and due to the conflict within the internal Haitians, the Haitians withdrew in the end. The eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola were formally declared independent on February 27, 1844 and were named as Republic Dominicana or Dominican Republic was given. Thus over these years till the time of the independence, the Spaniards, the French and the Haitians fully exploited its wealth and natural resources and led the colony to decline. Mismanagement and corruption were the hallmarks of the colonial rule during these periods.

The La Trinitaria leaders of the crusade for independence for Dominican independence nearly at once faced political resistance from insiders, and in a span of six months were overthrown from authority. Then onwards, the Dominic Republic almost all the time remained under the regime of caudillos, strong leaders who governed the nation in the manner as if it were their personal estate. Since the following 70 years, the Dominican Republic experienced several spate of civil war and was exemplified by political imbalance and economic turmoil. Since the subsequent 25 years, the leadership oscillated between General Pedro Santana and General Buenaventura Baez, whose soldiers relentlessly battled with one another for securing power for running the administration. During 1861, General Pedro Santana requested the Spanish to come back and rule their erstwhile colony.

However, following a limited span of misconduct by the Spaniards, the Dominicans understood their folly and evacuated the Spaniards such that they will be able to refurbish the Republic. One more endeavor was done for stability when Dominicans requested the U.S. To occupy after a decade. Even though U.S. President Grant was in favor of the invitation, it was beat by the U.S. Congress and the concept was discarded. In the 19th century, the economy of the country changed from ranching to other avenues of income. In the southwestern area, a novel industry sprang up with the felling and exporting of valuable woods such as mahogany, oak and guayacan. In the northern plain lands and valleys surrounding Santiago, industry concentrated on nurturing tobacco for some of the world's most excellent, and on coffee. In 1882, General Ulysses Heureux assumed power. His vicious despotism comprised of a dishonest rule, which sustained power by brutal subjugation of his detractors. General Heureux managed the matters of the country so badly that it frequently fluctuated to and fro between economic crisis and devaluations of currency. After his killing in 1899, many persons assumed power, but that was shortlived and was defeated by their political detractors, and the nation's domestic condition endlessly worsened into commotion. (History of the Dominican Republic)

By 1904, the economy was a disaster, and overseas governments were intimidating to employ arm-twisting measures to recover outstanding loans. The urgency to avoid European interference, the United States took charge of the management of Dominican customs and receipts in 1905. (Dominican Republic History and Development of the Armed forces) by the dawn of the century, the sugar industry was revitalized, and therefore several Americans arrived at the Dominican Republic to purchase plantations which they arrived to control this important sector of the economy. During 1916, Americans desirous of enlarging the control and power in the Dominican Republic used the First World War as a pretext to deploy U.S. Marines to safeguard against weakness to big European forces like Germany. U.S. employed this case to dispatch U.S. Marines and to colonize Haiti. The U.S. occupied Dominican Republic for 8 years, and right from the initial stages, the Americans rapidly seized total command. They ruled for total closure of the Dominican Army and compelled the citizens to shun their weapons.

A dummy government was established and coerced to abide by the orders from the colonial U.S. Marine commanders. A modernization of the legal system was made to benefit American investors, permitting them to achieve hold of the bigger sectors of economy and lift Customs and import restrictions for any American products being moved into the Dominican Republic. As a result of these modifications, a lot of Dominican businessmen suffered losses. However, the sliver lining was that the political violence was eradicated and several enhancements in the infrastructure of the Dominican Republic and educational system were initiated. While American capture, the chief of the Dominican Army was an erstwhile telegraph clerk named Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. This corrupt honcho employed his position in ruling administration to gather a heavy amount of personal fortune from misappropriation, first of all entailing the purchase of military ammunition.

Even though the Dominican Republic had its inaugural comparatively free elections after the U.S. troops quit in 1924, within small period Trujillo succeeded in thwarting any restructuring actions, and in 1930 he assumed full control of power. Employing the Army as his initiator, Trujillo spared no effort in forming a suppressive dictatorship and formed a huge chain of emissaries to remove any possible detractors. His strongmen did not dither to employ threats, torment, or killing of political enemies to scare and subjugate the citizens to make sure that his regime continues and to hoard his wealth. Prior to that, since a long period he strengthened his power to such a level that he started to handle the Dominican Republic as if it were his independent monarchy. Trujillo got American favor of his leadership as he presented liberal and supporting terms to the American businessmen to… [END OF PREVIEW]

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