Drones, Unmanned Aerial Systems (Uav), and Violation of Citizens' Privacy Constitutional Rights Thesis

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Drones unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVs) and violation of citizen's privacy constitutional rights

Drones or Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) 3-9

History of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) Technology 4-5

Current Trends in the Usage of Drones 5-6

Classification of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) 6-9

Benefits Associated With the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) 9-12

Drones and Domestic Security 9-10

Drones and Terrorism 10-11

History of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) Technology 11-12

Issues Associated With the Usage of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) 12-15

Drones and Privacy 12-13

Drones and Excessive Collateral Damage

Drones and Psychological Impact on the Operators 13-14

Drones and Psychological Impacts on the Civilians 14-15

Research Methodology & #8230; 15-19

Theoretical Framework 16-18

Research Design 18-19

Literature Review 19-27

Current Trends in the Unmanned Aerial Systems Technology 20-21

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Market 21

6.3 Current Issues Legislations in the United States of America Regarding Unmanned Aerial Systems

(UAS) & #8230;. 21-24

6.4 Use of Drones in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq 24-25

6.5 Drones and Collateral Damage 25-26

6.6 Drones and the Psychology of the Enemy Combatants 26-27

7. Data and Analysis 27-38

7.1 Effectiveness of Drones in Combating Terrorism and in Degrading the Terrorist Organizations 27-30

7.2 Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems and Border Surveillance and Security & #8230;. 30-31

7.3 Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and the Threat to Privacy 31-32

7.4 Drones and the Collateral Damage 32-34

7.5 Impact of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) on the Civilians Living in the Affected Areas & #8230;34-37

7.6 Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on the Psychology of Drone Operators 37-38

8. Conclusions and Recommendations. 38-43

8.1 Conclusions 38-41

8.2 Recommendations & #8230;. 42-43

Drones Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) and Violation of Citizen's Privacy Constitutional Rights

1. Introduction

The research paper aims to assess the fact that how the development of technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems (UAVs) has improved the government's objective of defying and countering terrorist attacks inside and outside the United States, but still affecting citizen's privacy constitutional rights?

1.1. Statement of the Problem

The use and deployment of UAV's (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for attack missions in a military theater and surveillance in an active combat environment as well as domestic surveillance operations has been a topic racked with controversy. This subject, not only involves the ethical use of such new technology, but also a myriad of military battlefield, moral, psychological and privacy in domestic deployment situations. It can be wrongly used to violate the citizen's constitutional rights to privacy and unfair government involvement in non-violent or criminal domestic affairs to the use of such technology. This paper will examine the controversy at hand and examine the validity of these arguments regarding the concerns of privacy of citizens and international organizations and military.

2. Drones or Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS)

According to a forecast made by the Drones Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) industry, the worldwide expenditure on the market for the government and commercial usage of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) would rise to $89.1 billion by the end of this decade. Out of this amount, that is $89.1 billion, $28.5 billion would be spent on the research and development field and remaining $60.6 billion would be used on the acquisition of this technology. The military of the United States of America will be the major driver of growth in this market. According to the forecasters, the growth of this market heavily depends on the legislations and regulations that ensure the safe use and integration of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) in the airspace system. (Dillingham 2012, 2)

The past decade has seen some rapid advancement in the military technology. In the past, the countries which initiated wars had to take into consideration the fact that their own patriotic soldiers and commandos would be killed. But now it is possible for the countries, that posses the appropriate technology, to get rid of the individuals that pose threats in relation to their economy and national integrity, without the fear of retaliation. The past century has witnessed an increase in the use of the UAV technology, but only the United States of America, Israel and United Kingdom are reported to have used it till now. The other nations, are reported to have acquired this technology for military and battlefield surveillance and some nations are reported to have procured the armed version of this technology. (Birch, Lee, & Pierscionek 2012, 1-11)

2.1. History of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVS) Technology

Drones were first used in the year 1973 in the 'Yom Kippur' war by Israel. These were U.S. made drones and were used to draw the fire from the missiles. Israel later developed more advanced drones that are capable of capturing a video footage of the battlefield. In addition to that, drones were also used in the first 'Gulf War' in the years 1990 and 1991 for the purpose of surveillance and intelligence gathering. The UAV or Drone technology was also used in Kosovo, in the year 1999, for the same purposes. (Birch, Lee, & Pierscionek 2012, 1-11)

Before the attacks of September 11, the United States Air Force started experimenting with armed drones. In the year 2001, a missile named 'Helfire' was fired from a Predator drone. The missile was being fired at a stationary target and it was a successful experiment. In the same year, a predator drone operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), was used for the first time to assassinate Mohammed Atif, who was a terrorist and a well-known leader of Al Qaeda. (Birch, Lee, & Pierscionek 2012, 1-11)

Today about seventy five countries are estimated to possess Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) or Drones. Out of which the United States of America has used this technology across many countries, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Libya and Iraq. Israel, on the other hand, has been reported of using armed drones in the state of Gaza. The United Kingdom has also used these drones in Afghanistan in the year 2007. (Birch, Lee, & Pierscionek 2012, 1-11)

2.2. Current Trends in the Usage of Drones

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be defined as aircrafts that are being controlled by an operator and do not require a pilot to stay on board to control them. These Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, when combine with the ground stations and various data links, are said to form the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can have a great variety in terms of size and capacity. For example, some of the UAVs may have a wing span, which is similar and equal to the Boeing 737, whereas, the others might be smaller than a radio controlled model airplanes. (Cavoukian 2012, 3)

Previously, the use of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) was limited to the military purposes but with the advancements in technology these tools are now used for the purpose of domestic surveillance and public research as well. (Remy, Senouci, Jan, & Gourhan 2013, 1)

Though, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are generally associated with military operations but they are also used by domestic law enforcement agencies for the purpose of domestic surveillance. In addition to that, there has been an increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by the private sector. The increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by organizations other than military is due to the decreasing cost associated with the UAV technology. In addition to that, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are more effective and advantageous than the manned aerial vehicles. (Cavoukian 2012, 3)

2.3. Classification of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be divided into three main categories on the basis of their specifications namely; micro and mini UAVs, tactical UAVs, and strategic UAVs. . (Cavoukian 2012, 6) on the basis of their operations the drones can be divided into two categories namely; surveillance drones and armed drones. (Birch, Lee, & Pierscionek 2012, 1-11). All these categories are described in detail in the following section.

a. Micro and Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

They are considered as the smallest Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. They usually fly at a very low altitude or height. This height is usually below three hundred metres. This category usually consists of vehicles that can fly inside halls. These Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) consist of video recorders, voice recorders and radio transmitters etcetera. Micro UAVs weigh less than a hundred grams and they are smaller than mini UAVs. Mini UAVs usually weigh less than thirty kilograms and they fly at an altitude that lies between one hundred and fifty to three hundred metres. Both, micro and mini UAVs, are generally used in civil and commercial operations. (Cavoukian 2012, 6)

b. Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Tactical UAVs are heavier than micro and mini UAVS. Their weight lies between one hundred and fifty to fifteen hundred kilograms. They fly at an altitude ranging between three thousand to eight thousand metres. Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), currently, are generally used to support… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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"Drones, Unmanned Aerial Systems (Uav), and Violation of Citizens' Privacy Constitutional Rights."  Essaytown.com.  June 30, 2013.  Accessed January 26, 2020.