Drug Action Pharmacokinetics Essay

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SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Up to 80% of salicylic acid metabolized in the liver. Conjunction with glycine leads to the formation of Salicyl Uric acid and it forms a glucorinide with Glucoronic acid. Salicylic acid is mainly excreted by the kidneys as salicyluric acid but also as salicylic phenol (about 10%), free salicylic acid (also about 10%), and five percent as acyl glucuronides.

Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drug actions. There are four levels of drug action; molecular, cellular, tissue, and system. Molecular targets for drugs are commonly receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport carrier molecules. Hormone and neurotransmitter receptors are very important molecular targets for drug actions. These are very selective and often the drug actions are also selective. These actions can be: (1) agonists that bind do a hormone and neurotransmitter receptor can mimic the effects of endogenous ligands; (2) antagonists that bind to the receptor but do not mimic -- interfere with agonist binding (competitive, noncompetitive, reversible, and irreversible antagonism); (3) partial agonists bind with receptors only partially; and (4) inverse agonists which stop productive independent reactivity of the receptor.

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Ion channels are proteins in the transmembrane. When these are open they allow selective passage of specific ions via a specific configuration of the channel. Ion channels occur in four different states: (1) rested (here the channel is closed but stimulation can open it); (2) activated (open); (3) inactivated (closed and stimulation will not open it); and (4) transitioned between states.

Essay on Drug Action Pharmacokinetics Explains the Assignment

Enzymes are important for regulatory and metabolic pathways. There are great many enzymes in cells and the bodily fluids of these are potential targets for drugs. Drugs either mimic enzyme substrate or inhibit enzyme activity. The drug action of enzymes occurs on the ligand -- recognition sites. For example, acetylcholinesterase degrades acetylcholine. There are two components to the substrate -- recognition site. Acetylcholine interaction with the site leads to acetylcholine hydrolysed choline and acetate. Some cholinester analogues can also bind to the site inhibiting hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine.

Transport molecules regulate cell contents using carrier molecules to facilitate passage of ions and molecules.

Cellular targets for drugs include molecular targets for drug action link to cellular response components (enzymes, ion channels, and so forth). This is accomplished via the transduction (second messenger systems). Receptors are classified according to the components they are linked to and include: (A) Receptor -- operated channels that are molecular targets and after ligand -- binding can have a role in transduction; (B) G -- protein -- linked receptors which are transduction components linked to a super -- family of receptors; (C) receptors that are enzymes such as Tyrosine kinases and Guanylyl cyclase; and (D) DNA linked receptors which are intracellular receptors that can interact with DNA.

Tissue and symptom targets for drugs are intimately linked and their mechanism is difficult to determine. Examples of tissue targets for drugs include the heart, lungs, and the autonomic nervous system.

Aspirin acts by the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme COX (cyclo-oxgenase). This results in irreversibly inhibiting prostaglandins which is the major action of its therapeutic effects. Aspirin alleviates many types of pain of mild/moderate intensity. The analgesic action of aspirin is associated with its anti-inflammatory effects via the inhibition of prostaglandins. The inhibition of prostaglandins that arise in inflamed tissues and preventing pain receptor sensitivity to chemical (e.g., bradykinin) or mechanical stimulation appears to be the primary pain mediating property of aspirin. The inhibition of prostaglandins also has the effect of reducing pain caused by inflammation. Aspirin also reduces fever via in inhibition of prostaglandins and vasodialtion of blood vessels as well as irreversibly inhibiting platelet aggregation as well.

There is a central action of aspirin as it appears that aspirin is able to transverse the blood brain barrier and acts on a hypothalamic… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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