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Drugs and ChildrenArticle Review

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¶ … 1971, American president Richard Nixon decaled war on drugs. It was assumed that via federal policing, drug trafficking could be significantly stopped in the United States within a short period of time. That war on drugs, started in the 1970s, rages on even today. The price paid for this war on drugs is beyond approximations in terms of money, lives lost and well being of citizens of United States. The poverty stricken society faced the worst consequences. The outcome of this war has been modest for now. A paradoxical situation arises since no matter how hard government gets on war on drugs, the drug mafia pushes back equally hard with higher pricing. Hence, it's an ideal situation for get-rich-quick smugglers who attempt it. Hence, the drug mafia benefits from the harsh restrictions imposed on drugs since the war focuses on small drug busts instead of big time drug syndicates (Becker and Murphy)

The present drug policies are doing more damage than good, actually less good; since they are formulated under certain basic assumptions. Drug abusers are categorized in one group under Pareto's Law: In case of any activity, 20% people account for 80% of the action. With frustration against drug policy status quo rising, the escalating levels of smuggling crimes in Central America and Mexico, the financial cost per year keeping one million drug deals in American jails has necessitated some kind of legalization. President Barack Obama in a conference in Cartagena was stressed upon by Latin American states to soften its drug policy (Kleiman, Caulkins and Hawken).

On the federal front, as per director of the Drug Policy Alliance Ethan Nadelmann says that Justice Department demonstrates a subtle form of leadership on state sanctioned experiments for drug reform providing leeway on regulating marijuana and tax laws. Furthermore, Native American tribal governments are free to experiment with marijuana laws which in one way opens up doubts about recreational pots in a number of States. In a legislation intended to derail DC legalization, Congress made historic inroads by securing defense from federal prosecution in case of state-legal medical marijuana controls. The policies made as per the federal law, sentences are given by an indecipherable formula in which a quantity of banned substance trafficked is punishable at 38 different levels of rising severity. In context of sentencing reforms that took place in November, as per Holder's Justice Department, the sentences have been dropped by two degrees. For instance, someone indicted for smuggling five grams of meth is sentenced at level 26 instead of 28, hence 63 months instead of 78, saving a priceless one year from the sentence (Dickinson).

2. Based on the articles on legalization, briefly describe the argument pro-or against marijuana legalization.

Argument for legalization

More often than not, the illegitimacy of drugs is considered more than the development of the manners in which to assist drug addicts when it comes to the effects of the war on drugs. For instance, this encompasses the drug that is comparable to nicotine patches. Therefore, in as much as the war on drugs might as well have brought about minimal usage of drugs by having higher prices, it has also increased the likelihood of the addition rate. With drugs being illegal, it makes it much harder for addicts to attain assistance in breaking their addictions. This makes the addicts have more associations with other addicts rather than those who might help them quit. Majority of the parents who are in support of this are largely worried that their children might end up being addicts and not the random drug users. However, this war might end up increasing rates of addictions and the number of addicts (Becker and Murphy). The appeal for legalization is clear. In one instance, it would do away with the hoodlums who deal in the black market. However, for this to be effective it would also have to encompass other hard drugs such as cocaine, crack, heroin and methamphetamine (Kleiman, Caulkins and Hawken).

3. what are at least 2 reasons that may influence one to be a supporter of marijuana legalization, besides past or current marijuana use?

There have been political deliberations coming up with the increasing call for legalization in the United States. Research has been conducted with regards to the legalization and removal on penalties for the use of marijuana. However most of these studies have been undertaken in Europe and not the United States (Palmar).

Political association inclined to be intensely linked with positions toward legalization. The conservatives were incessantly against the legalization whereas the liberals were incessantly likely to support more liberal policies. Nevertheless, while conservatives were likely to support marijuana being sold to adults only, the liberals as well as the moderates had more likelihoods of supporting the retailing of marijuana to adults and low chances to supporting retailing to any individual. This indicates that chances are these groups support legalization but according to age (Palamar).

The other motive for legalization is centered on the support for freedom, increasing tax revenues, getting rid of arrests, decreasing black markets and related corruption as well as limiting availability to youth (Palamar).

Brief paper no. 6

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Minnesota Model (MM)

The twelve step process of the Minnesota Model can be compared in different manners with what is deemed to be processes of seeking help and changing behavior. The main philosophy and operation behind this program has been espoused by other self-help groups for different kinds of addiction encompassing extreme gambling, disorders in eating, narcotics and nicotine dependence and post-traumatic stress. This process can also be of benefit to friends and family of the patient (Kassel and Jackson).

MM has been of great benefit and worth and has assisted numerous people ranging from adolescents to adults of over sixty five years of age. In all chances, some features of the twelve step program are appealing to teens. The ideologies encompass a resilient spiritual focus with the idea of a higher power clearly replaced by God. It also focuses on the rebuilding of associations with other individuals through restitution and confession (Kassel and Jackson).

The suitability and whether this program is appropriate for teenagers might be considered when one thinks through on the issues regarding development and diagnosis which are exclusive to the age-group. For instance, it was indicated that there were numerous important developmental issues in giving treatment to adolescents compared to adults. In specific, adults in a general manner have an identity that is already developed before they become addicts to drugs or alcohol and can go back to such identity when being treated and work in attaining what had been lost during addiction periods (Kassel and Jackson).

Finally, BB is based on a solid philosophical base that is not flexible and one that does not change regarding the manner in which recovery can and will take place. In particular this philosophy and way of thinking as shown in the twelve step program might be employed as a constraint or restriction to a number of adolescents (Kassel and Jackson).

2 (a): the author's point-of-view for abstinence

The author has offered the proofs for backing abstinence and argues that abstinence is not just for alcoholics. She elucidates that drinking issues differ considerably and therefore interventions are necessary and ought to depend on the behavior. According to Fletcher, alcoholics can be taught how to drink in moderation and this is effective than abstinence. However, it is deemed that this is ineffective as individuals at that point in time have made several attempts to change their behavior and therefore the only solution is not drinking completely.

Different from BB, which asserts that the alcoholic is powerless, MM inspires individual responsibility. The group heartens members to begin by not drinking for a month and then start drinking in moderation of small amounts (Halgen).

2 (b). moderation as an effective alternative approach for recovery

Compelling all individuals with alcohol problems to withdraw does not consider the existence of drinking from simple to life threatening. For instance, Enrico J. who has committed offences three times while drunk is expected to abstain for many months deemed by attendance to AA on a weekly basis for a whole year when being a young adult. He made the case that he was not an alcohol but nobody believed. A decade later, he can opt to drink or not. He prefers to drink beer as a beverage but not to get drunk or high. An attorney on alcohol considers majority of drunk drivers not to be alcoholic though they signify one of the biggest group of individuals forced into programs centered on abstinence (Halgen).

Those who have mastered drinking have come to use different methods of not getting drunk. Their perceptions are in line with those of experts who attain stable moderation and not just have less drinking rates but also alter their drinking practices. For example, the will prefer to drink a beverage, will not meet with alcohol friends and will… [END OF PREVIEW]

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