Term Paper: Due to His Work

Pages: 4 (1425 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Chemistry  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] For example:

If there was a gas that exerted 10 atm of pressure and took up a space of 3 liters, and it was decided to expand the space to 7 liters, what would be the new pressure, assuming that temperature remains constant?

The equation PV = k will tell what the constant for this gas is. However, since the same gas is being used, the constant will be the same. Thus, the original product of pressure and volume will equal the new product of pressure and volume. This is represented by:

P1V1 = P2V2 where P1 and V1 are the pressure and volume before expanding (respectively) and P2 and V2 are the pressure and volume after expanding. So, P1 = 10 atm, V1 = 3 L, V2 = 7 L, and solving for P2

or the new pressure. By putting the numbers into the equation the result is (10 atm) x (3 L) = (P2) x (7 L). P2 = 4.3 atm.

Boyle also became the first to publish the details of his work, including unsuccessful experiments through his new term "chemical analysis." He performed assays on gold and silver, tested for copper with ammonia and salt in water with silver nitrate, and developed a 30-item test for the analysis of mineral water. He also found that all acids turned a vegetable indicator from blue to red, all alkalis turned the indicator green, and some substances did not change the color at all and thus were neutral. Boyle therefore provided an operational method of classifying substances (Hall 99).

Finally, Boyle determined what he called "the good hypothesis."

The Requisites of a Good Hypothesis are:

1. That it be Intelligible.

1. That it neither Assume nor suppose anything Impossible, Unintelligible, absurd, or demonstrably False.

2. That it be Consistent with it self.

3. That it be fit and sufficient to Explicate the Phaenomena, especially the chief.

That it be, at least consistent, with the rest of the Phaenomena it particularly relate to; and do not contradict any other known Phaenomena of Nature, or manifest Physical Truth.

The Qualityes & Conditions of an Excellent Hypothesis are:

1. That it be not Precarious, but have sufficient Grounds in the Nature of the Thing itself, or at least be well recommended by some Auxiliary Proofs.

2. That it be the simplest of all the Good ones we are able to frame, at least containing nothing that is superfluous or Impertinent.

3. That it be the only Hypothesis that can Explicate the Phaenomena; or at least, that dos explicate them so well.

4. That it enable a skilful Naturalist to foretell future Phaenomena by their Congruity or Incongruity to it; and especially the events of such Experiments as are aptly devis'd to examine it, as Things that ought or ought not, to be consequent to it.

It comes as no surprise that Boyle's work is being rediscovered and looked at as a major foundation to the scientific method and the work that continues to this day. As Shahn summarizes Boyle's work:

"By instituting an 'if...then' approach to his experiment ... he was able to verify what he had predicted ....As with all areas of science, we may look at the progression of the various observations made by the scientists of the 17th century and notice that each man's contribution was significant to the growth of knowledge obtained in pneumatics. However, it is through the use of hypothesis testing to obtain quantitative results, such as Boyle used, that we may develop evidential conclusions to substantiate the implications proposed by these men.

References Cited

Boyle, Robert. "Some Specimens" in Certain Physiological Essays (cit. n. 33), Works 1:355-6. Quotation from "The Preface," 1661.

Boyle, Robert. Some Considerations touching the Usefulness of Experimental Natural Philosophy, bk. II, Pt. 2 Works 3:471. Quotation from the section entitled "Of Men's Great Ignorance in the Uses of Natural Things," (1671).

Boyle, Robert." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online

" 6 July 2005 .

Hall, Marie Boas. "Robert Boyle," Scientific American, 1967, August, 96-102

Levere, Trevor H. "Robert Boyle." Canadian Journal of History, April 2002, Vol. 37 Issue 1, p75-83

Shahn, Ezra and Costello, Robert. "Evidence and Interpretation." Department of Biological Sciences Hunter College… [END OF PREVIEW]

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