East Asian Civilizations ) Unequal Essay

Pages: 7 (2642 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: History - Asian

Between 1774 and 1900 major conflicts arose in China which includes the following;

The White Lotus Society situated in the North of China, was first appeared in the 13th century and was responsible for the social unrest caused in the country. Basically the teachings of the society were based on Buddhism. The society reemerged in late 18th century and created anti-Manchu rebellions in the North of China. A White Lotus leader in Shandong, Wang Lun, in 1774 convinced his believers that he would be the Buddha in future. They tried to occupy small town in the country and the Qing had to send the armies in order to stop them. However, in 1796 an open war began in Hubei between White Lotus Society and Qing's army and soon this war spread to Sichaun and Shaanxi. Initially the society appeared as tax protestors but soon they gained the support from many ordinary people.

Due to rapidly increasing population of China, Han population increased and started moving to Miao territories. But Miao aborigines resisted on the inclusion of Han population in their territories. This resulted in great destruction of Miao along the border of Hunan-Guizhao. The Qing government found Miao as a challenge as the Rebel of White Lotus Society.

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Poverty, unemployment and famine destroyed many villages and government did not pay much attention to these people. These dissatisfied peasants, known as Nian, adopted various predatory activities. The degree of crime increased in Nian people. This rebellion failed t adjusts with Qing Dynasty and the economic devastation and loss of lives and properties caused the failure of Qing Dynasty.

Essay on East Asian Civilizations (1) Unequal Assignment

The Muslim ethnic group was not in the control of Qing government as the Qing government sends its army to fight with the Nian rebels. This rebellion also created ethnic tensions and hatred. In the Northwest provinces of Shaanxi was an uprising by the members of Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups. The objective of the uprising was to create a separate Muslim emirate on the Western bank of the Yellow river, since Hui people and Chinese Muslims were against the Qing Dynasty.

The Taiping Rebellion was the most devastating peasant revolt in China. They held the control of large parts of China for nearly 14 years. About 20 million to 30 million deaths occurred during the Taiping Rebellion, which severely weakened the Qing government.


The fall of Qing Dynasty and the revolution of 1911 along with the formation of new republican government in China was a failure. The new government was a failure as it was corrupt and inefficient. The success of Russian Communism, gave idea to Chinese intellectuals that Communism could save China from further devastation.

The Russian government was anxious to introduce Communism (Marxist doctrine) in other parts of the world, including non-Western parts such as' Asia and Africa. According to Marxism, industrial system is unfair and corrupt, where common is oppressed by one group of people. Workers worked in factories and farms, whereas another group of people earned profits without working or without making any efforts. Karl Marx, the founder of Marxism, was of the view that such system of Marxism could only be created through revolution, where social inequality could be removed and a classless society could be developed.

Li Dazhao, the Liberian at Beijing University did preliminary research on Marxist theory and organized a Marxist study group at the Beijing University. Mao Zendong, who was the future leader of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was much attracted by the Marxist theory. In 1921, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was founded by the faculty and staff members of the Beijing University and Chen Duxiu was appointed as the leader of the party (CCP). Although both parties, i.e. The Nationalist party and the Communist party, did not trust each other, yet they had a single goal to devastate the warlords. An alliance was made between both the parties, which were known as "First United Front."

The government of China made two attacks against warlords between 1926 and 1928. There were three powerful warlords which were targeted by the Chinese government, i.e.

Wu Peifu in the Central Plain region

Sun Chuanfang on the East Coast of China

Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria

Finally the warlords era ended in 1928 and the Commander-in-Chief of the Nationalist Revolutionary Army, Jiang Jieshi, was emerged as the leader of China in 1928. Although the objective of nationalist party and Communist party was the same but the tensions between both the parties got severe over the period of time. Mao Zedong, who was the young revolutionary peasant, emerged as the leader of the Chinese Communist Party. He believed that instead of seeking support among small urban working class, the Chinese Communist Party should made peasant masses as their big supporters.

Mao Zedong, the leader of Chinese Communist Party was of the view that the party should gain the trust and support of the Chinese peasants as against the Nationalist party. Unlike to the view of Mao Zedong, other members of the Chinese Communist Party was of the view of Marxist doctrine, i.e. The best way to achieve Communist revolution was to gain the trust of factory workers and urban residents and to mobilize them for the revolution. In 1929, Mao Zedong established a Jiangxi Soviet between Jiangxi and Fujian, which in the view of Mao was the safer place to avoid Nationalist attacks. Regarding the efforts of Mao Zedong, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party joined Mao in 1932 in the Jiangxi Soviet. In 1934, the Nationalist party launched an extermination campaign against Communist Party, but the Communist Party with 86,000 Communist soldiers and followers defeated the Nationalist Party. The Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong performed Long March that threatened the Nationalist Party. That Long March under the supervision of Mao was regarded as a sign of Communist Heroism. The Long March gave positive reputation to the Communist Party among the peasants and showed the signs of determination and dedication. Mao Zedong became an acknowledged leader of the Chinese Communist Party after the Lon March of October 1934- October 1936.


CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .

Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).

Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.

Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Paine, S.C.M. "The Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895." Slavic Research… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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