Economic Globalization Term Paper

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Economic globalization is regarded as an economic reform activity in reaction to the deterioration of the Fordist method of bulk production as well as consumption that was initiated during the latter part of the 1960s or during the early part of the 1970s. (Byster; Smith, 1999) at present manufacturing process is extensively spread all over the country as well as across the world, though once it was greatly centralized in the U.S. (Sassen-Koob, 1983) the garment industry, a significant manufacturing industry is usually considered to be a universal as also a footloose industry. The industry is more than hundred years old and its manufacture process has gone through numerous variations in the products it makes, technology being made use of, the presence of its clients as well as contenders, the regulatory situation within which it works, and the lifestyle of its employees as well as owners. (Gold, 2004) Actually they were the first production industries to have an international presence and the widely dispersed of all industries in geographic terms across the world. The electronics industry is another major manufacturing industry which promotes the practical variations that is typical of globalization. Technological modifications made it probable to change the production procedures and to organize and manage the wide spread economic functions. (Knutsen; Knutsen, 2003) the electronics industry stimulates this potential force, which is the world's leading and rapidly developing manufacturing area. (Byster; Smith, 1999)

We shall first discuss about the advantages of women from the growth of the garment industry. Across the world, the development of garment manufacture for the purpose of export is a great source of employment and can be witnessed as a constructive step particularly in relation to job opportunities for women. (Corporate Watch, 2005) Dicken assessed that about 80% of the workers in the garment industry throughout the world are women. (Firth, 2006) in the U.S., there are over 30,000 garment manufacturing units, which have over 800,000 manufacturing workers, of which a greater part are women workers. (Figueroa, 1996) in the garment industry there is a tendency to favor women employees, as they are inexpensive to hire, less interest to enter into unions, and tend to possess increased tolerance for the boring, repetitive job in assembly functions. Therefore women tend to have improved employment facilities with the development and expansion of the garment manufacturing industry. (Safa, 1993)

Flexible working hours are available for several women being employed in the garment manufacturing industry. In the U.S., Chinese women often enter the country legally with their families. The male partners of these women who enter the U.S. get employment in the Chinese restaurants and often work for daily income without any other benefits accrued. Women who find employment in the garment manufacturing industry make money to take care of their families and to attain health insurance benefits for their relevant families. As the women workers find flexibility with regard to the working time, it allows them time for shopping, leave or takes their kids from school and function the daily house jobs during the daytime. They are in a position to do their job according to their available time, during evenings or weekends as their wages are based on the amount of garments that they manufacture. These women who work into garment industry tend to join the social network that becomes a type of referral activity for the Chinese employers and this network also prepares and helps the women workers on the shop floor. (Bionaz; Chin, 2005)

Views differ among women of various classes on the diverse meanings for their work and these views impact gender duties as well as responsibilities within the home, particularly in the developing countries. The garment industry employs women from a variety of backgrounds because of the fact that they can be shaped into dedicated workers. Earnings tend to give power to certain single women. Married women require these jobs because the wages received from the garment manufacturing industry is necessary for household needs; even if this income is not sufficient for them to have an authority in their families. (Ahmed, 2004)

We shall now discuss the disadvantages of women from the growth of the garment industry Beneath the showy glittery exterior view of the New York's garment manufacturing industry is an unstable and cruel atmosphere wherein firms large as well as small depend on the immigrant employees, majority being women, working under severe situations to make both clothing as well as their living. It exposes a Dickensian world of uncontrolled capitalism. Its present condition shows an unexpected degree of stability continuing with its earlier types. (Gold, 2004) as per researcher Mercedes Steedman the practice of gender inequality ordained women to second-rate status and substandard incomes. (Gail, 2000)

The several companies operating in the garment manufacturing industry in order to continue to be viable minimize the amount being paid to the employees and women are the worst impacted by these lesser pay since they tend to have lesser pay in comparison to men and could readily be caught in a cycle of poverty as well as to work in unsafe working atmosphere. Their prospects of upward mobility is less and they are employed using the short-term contracts or virtually with no contracts. (Safa, 1993) Oxfam's analysis reveals that less than half of the women in the garment manufacturing and exporting units in Bangladesh have an agreement, and the majority do not have any maternity benefits or health insurance benefits, even though 80% are afraid of being fired if they protest. The study also revealed that about 80 hours of overtime monthly on an overall average of was being worked with absolutely no salary slips. Only an average of about 60% to 80% of the unpaid income was being obtained. For instance, in Bangladesh though in official records about 98% of women working in the garment manufacturing industry get income above the minimum level of pay, this minimum amount of pay has been fixed at the same level from the year 1994. Due to price hike this was about U.S. $33 in 1994 and only about U.S. $17 in the year 2004. There are also several firms that do not give even this lower pay. (Corporate Watch, 2005)

This has formed a state wherein garment industry women workers could be exactly considered as the working poor. On the basis of the 1996 estimates, a research analysis performed by Father Barr in Fiji reveals that about 46.8% of the full-time workers attained incomes that were less than the poverty line. Out of these about 67.9% were the women workers. Cawthorne has also analyzed that about 80% of the workers were women getting incomes that are less than the poverty line. (Firth, 2006) Employers would like to employ workers who are not part of any unions, often threatening those who fight for their rights. Frequently combined with low levels of health as well as safety policy and working hours being long with recurring jobs in atmospheres could result in health hazards like stress, burnout, problems of respiration, joint aches, headaches, coughing, fever, vomiting. Workers are frequently made to work overtime without giving their wages due to them. As the work is untrained work, the workers are also in excess. (Corporate Watch, 2005)

Research often shows the inhuman working situations. A company, which has been severely being blamed, is Wal-Mart, which is the biggest retailer in the world. The most awful labor situation in the garment manufacturing industry in Guatemala is in the factories that manufacture garments for Wal-Mart. Also it is the main manufacturer in the area. (Mike, 2005) in the year 2004, the daily figures in Scotland examined the Chi Shing factory situated in Dongguan, China, which made lingerie for Tesco along with others. It exposed the congested dormitories having refugees from the poor regions of northern China. The houses were the workers did their work were like that of a travel inn. (Corporate Watch, 2005)

Another issue facing women workers working in the garment industry relates to accidents which occur at these factories. For example, in Bangladesh, ever since the year 1990 almost 300 employees have died and 2500 sustained injuries in factory fires. During April 2005, a nine-floor building of Spectrum Shahriar garment factory situated in Palashbari came down at a night shift, with the workers being killed amounting to 61 people as also injuring another 84 workers. Two directors of the company were being rejected bail and were imprisoned during a court hearing which was held on May 8, 2005 wherein it was found that the factory had been built without prior planning consent. There is yet problem which affects women garment industry workers and it relates to sexual harassment, which is widespread in the garment manufacturing industry. In spite of giving new openings, women's position in the garment industry is prone to misuse, which could lead to a gender hierarchy by means of disparity in salary and working situations. (Corporate Watch, 2005)

Let us now move on to the Electronics Industry.… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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