Economics Politics Trade Term Paper

Pages: 22 (7721 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 25  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Literature - Latin-American

Economics, Politics, Trade

Geopolitical base

Geography

Political Systems

Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds

Germany

Peru

Economics, Politics, Trade

This paper shall be a comparison of two countries of the world-one which is a developed country and another developing country. The developed country chosen for the study is Germany and the developing country is Peru. The paper shall deal with the geopolitical base and the Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds of the two countries.

Geopolitical base

Geography:

Germany occupies 356,959 square kilometers. It is the sixth biggest country in Europe with Alps in the south and extending 853 kilometers from Denmark as its northern border. Germany measures roughly 650 kilometers from the Belgian-German border in the west to the Polish frontier in the east. The province of the earlier East Germany, occupies approximately one-third of merged Germany's territory and one-fifth of its population. In 1993 the Bundestag, the lower house of Germany's parliament, after a close poll, preferred to shift the capital from Bonn in the west to Berlin, a city-state in the east bounded by the Land of Brandenburg. By the year 2000 it is expected that the transfer procedure will be completed, following the shift of the Bundestag, the Bundesrat, the Chancellory and ten of the eighteen federal ministries. (Geography of Germany)Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Term Paper on Economics Politics Trade Assignment

Germany with its uneven, drawn out shape presents an admirable example of a repeated series of landforms found all over the world. A plain spotted with lakes, moors, marshes, and heaths havens from the sea and touches inland, where it becomes scenery of hills crisscrossed by streams, rivers, and valleys. These hills escort uphill, slowly developing into high plateaus and woodlands and eventually climaxing in spectacular mountain ranges. In the mid 1990s, almost 37% of the country's area was arable; meadows and pastures occupied 17%; 30% was forests and woodlands; and 16% was dedicated to other uses. Geographers regularly split Germany into four definite topographic regions: the North German Lowland; the Central German Uplands; Southern Germany; and the Alpine Foreland and the Alps. (Geography of Germany)

On the other hand, Peru is regarded as the complex blend of traditional and advanced cultures, populations, queries, divergences and quandary. The land seems to provide great experiments. Peru is regarded as the eighteenth largest nation in the world and the fourth largest nation in Latin America in terms of the area having 1,285,216 square kilometers. Being situated amidst 8900-kilometer-long Andean range, the geography and climate of Peru even though appear to be similar to that of Andean neighbors, are considered as unique making the region as the most heterogeneous and dynamic. The main features of Peru among others are its desert coast; the forty great snow-covered peaks over 6000 meters in altitude, and the mountain ranges they anchor. The Costa, Sierra and Selva each are having a divergent and sharply distinct environment from that of the main region of the country. (Geography of Peru)

The coastal Peru is austere, rocky and mountainous desert that extends from Chile to Ecuador, punctuated by fifty-two small rivers that slide down through steep, arid mountains and empty into the Pacific. The Costa is a strange land of great sandbank and rolling expanses of barren sand. Once upon a time it was a desert but with the passage time the humidity has increased to be 90% in the winter from June to September when temperatures in Lima records an average of about 16 degrees Celsius. The temperature is higher along the coast near the equator in the north where the summer is considered to be blazingly hot and reduce to cooler levels in the south. The Sierra is the authoritative feature of the territory of Peru, with its height up to 6,768 meters. A large number of permanently glaciated and snowcapped peaks constitutes canopy over the valleys. The sharp porous Pacific edge of the Andes supports only a thin population in villages located at infrequent springs and seepages.

Conversely, the tropical forests cover the eastern portion of the Andes as high as 2,100 meters. The Selva, embracing the humid tropics of the Amazon jungle and rivers, covers about 63% of Peru but contains only about 11% of the total population of the country. Another ecological environment is created within the Peruvian territory by the maritime region. The exports of fish meal and fish products are of crucial significance for the economy of the Peru. Due to this the variations in the environmental patterns on the coast or in the adjacent ocean have distressing impacts on employment and therefore, national stability. The regular visit of warm current, El Nino flowing south and temporary depletion limitless stock of anchovy through intensive fishing has become the major concern for the Peru. (Geography of Peru)

1. B. Political systems:

The political system of Germany system spelled out in the 1949 constitutions, the Grundgesetz, has continued in effect with minor amendments after 1990s German Reunification. The constitution lays emphasis on the safeguard of individual liberty putting forth an extensive array of human rights and also distributes powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive and judicial branches respectively. The Grundgesetz, of 1949 is considered to be a strong reply to the conceived defects of the 1919 failure of Weimar Republic Third Reich. Sixteen Federal States constitute the Federal Republic Bundesrepublik. The Grundgesetz, of 1949 laid down that the legislature is to be managed by the states in every respect unless specifically mentioned in the Grundgesetz. However, this norm has been countered in practice with several amendments from time to time primarily leaving only police and cultural affairs to be handled by state legislature. The political structure of the individual states is governed by the provisions enshrined in the state constitutions however, similar to that of the federal level to a certain extent. (Politics of Germany)

The federal government is headed by Minister-President termed as Ministerpr sidenten or in case of the three city states Regierender Burgermeister or Erster Burgermeister. All of them form a state cabinet also irrespective of their size is much smaller than the federal government. The elections for the parliaments of the Bundesl nder are scheduled to be held in every four to five years varying from state to state. He is elected by and liable to the Parliament of Germany. The Chancellor cannot be overthrown during a four-year term unless the Bundestag decides for a successor. A member of his cabinet preferably the Foreign Minister is appointed as Vice-Chancellor. The heads of government may vary the framework of the ministries whenever and however they see fit. The power of the legislature can be viewed in terms of special jurisdiction and concomitant jurisdiction with the L. nder in areas particularly prescribed under the Basic Law. The Parliament of Germany, the Bundestag, shoulders the major liability. (Politics of Germany)

In relation to the political structure of Peru, it can be pointed out that the elected President Fujimori dramatically launched a military backed self-coup on April, 1992 superseding legislature and judiciary and suspended the Constitution of 1979. The executive power under the Constitution of 1979 has been assigned to the elected President of the Republic, elected for a four-year term through the elections held every five years. A President is barred from serving two consecutive terms. The Administration is carried on with the assistance of a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. The legislature consists of the Bicameral Congress having a 60 member Senate elected district wise and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies directly elected through the proportional representation. (Peru: Government and Politics)

The election to both the houses was elected for a term of five years coinciding with those of President and Vice-President. It necessitated at least two-thirds majority for superseding the Presidential Veto. At the apex of the judicial administration there is the Supreme Court of Justice consisting of twelve members nominated by the President for the life time terms. The Constitution of 1979 authorized establishment of regional governments at the regional levels. There was an initiation for regionalism in 1988, however, was held up 1992. The direct elections for municipalities occurred every three years and for regions in every five years. The Fujimori initiated its reformed democracy, with the international persuasion, establishing the Democratic Constituent Congress to serve as autonomous single-chamber legislative body. (Peru: Government and Politics)

2. Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds

2. a. Germany

Germany has one of the world's largest financial systems along with the United States and Japan and also occupies the most domineering central banks. The GDP of Germany with DM3 trillion is fewer by one-third of the United States GDP and one-half of Japan's. Germany, though small in size, has constantly applied a strong power on the world economy. The Federal Republic has performed a crucial role in opening, organizing, or concluding each calamity and each stage felt by the global monetary system, ever since the end of the World War II. The first stage was the Bretton Woods period, christened after the… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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