Research Paper: Ecosystem, Which Is a Biological

Pages: 4 (1321 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Transportation - Environmental Issues  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Eventually, the younglings grow up to become workers and participate in nest activity. By the late summer, the queen begins to reproduce and the colony population has reached it maximum limit. Once the season ends, this whole cycle of nesting and repopulation starts again.

In terms of controlling wasp nests, for mud daubers, it is important to remove mud nests and to seal off places like garages or buildings. As for paper wasps, aerosol sprays are to be used to control them containing rapid knockdown chemicals like resmethrin and pyrethrins. Nests are to be destroyed at night since wasps are inactive at the time and the majority of the species are situated within this locale. Grantham (2004) noted that "structural nests (e.g., wall voids) are best controlled by an initial application of 5% carbaryl dust with a generator, followed quickly with 1% resmethrinthe entrance should be plugged, preferably with steel wool, and dusted with 5% carbaryl to kill returning wasps."

Bald-faced hornet whose nests are aerial and are constructed of grey paper, they are treated using the aforementioned aerosol products that contain knock down ingredients. They are used to spray at the entrance of the nest, which is located near the lower pinnacle of the nest. Next, the wasps' home is then soaked and the process is repeated until such critters are gone. Unfortunately, the hardest to treat nests are those that are in the holes of walls or cavities in homes since it is hard to locate the location of the home. As a result, ingredients and things used to treat wasps may pollute unnecessary areas. However, it is easy to treat nests that are in the ground because insecticide dust can be applied at the entrance of the wasps' home and covered with moist soil. Moreover, wasps are attracted to human food so sanitation and hygiene is important. Therefore, food should be covered at all times, spills and leaks should be cleaned up, and garbage cans should be tightly sealed.

Charles Darwin once said, "I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars." However, it is the role wasps play in the environment as a form of biological pest control. In addition, such insects, whether solitary or social, build annual nests as a form of shelter whether it is in the ground, on walls, or in cavities. The population of wasps is controlled through the use of aerosol sprays, sealing proper open spaces, and precautionary hygienic measures when it comes to food and odors. Overall, the paper has researched the various aspects of wasps, which include their duty, shelter, and control within the universal habitat.

References

Bianchi, F., & Wackers, F. (2008). Effects of flower attractiveness and nectar availability in field margins on biological control by parasitoids. Biological Control, 46(3), 400-408.

Grantham, R., & Wright, R. (2004, November 19). Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Other Stinging Wasps. OSU-Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.osuextra.com

Philips, C., Baird, D., Iline, I., McNeill, M., Proffitt, J., Goldson, S., et al. (2008). East meets west: adaptive evolution of an insect introduced for biological control . Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 948-956.

Rondon, S., Clough, G., & Corp, M. (n.d.). How to identify, scout, and control insect pests in vegetable crops. ScholarsArchive at Oregon State University. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/19902

Social Wasps | Iowa Insect Information Notes. (2005, July 14). Integrated Pest Management at Iowa State University. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/iiin/bsocialw.html

Tylianakis, J., Didham, R., & Wratten, S. (2004). Improved fitness of aphid parasitoids receiving resource subsidies. Ecology, 85, 658-666.

Tylianakis, J. (2010). Ensuring food production: native biodiversity provides pollination and biological control services. The role of forest biodiversity in the sustainable use of ecosystem goods… [END OF PREVIEW]

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