Term Paper: Education in America the Seventeenth

Pages: 12 (3372 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Mythology - Religion  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] They actively supported the efforts of their leaders in order to establish "a city on a hill" or a "holy experiment," whose feat would show that God's plan for his churches could be realized effectively in the American wilderness. Entrepreneurs who considered themselves "militant Protestants" and worked carefully to promote the success of the church led colonies such as Virginia to plan for commercial ventures as well as for better religious and scientific education 5.

Settlers of the New England in northern and Southern colonies were often rough and even sometimes rude, but they were conscious and fully aware of a dogma of 3. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. America as a Religious Refuge: The Seventeenth Century

5. Edward J. Power. Religion and the Public Schools in 17th Century America manners and practice it whenever the got time. The reason for this hostile attitude was because all were by no means beneficiaries of university study as many along with those who were not generally capable of discernment came from a source, independent of formal education 4.

The myth persisted that the first colonists were more engrossed by religion than education to the extent that their literary taste was limited to theological area only. While, fundamentals of fact infect all myths, if it is applied at all, only to few inhabitants of New England 4. Still even there or elsewhere in the colonies, reading habit among people went far beyond religious discussions, which includes subjects such as the classics, geography, history and law. The image of the colonial mind is vague if it signifies the first Americans as being academically narrow 4.

The religious fervor was more evident in the northern colony, while less intense among the inhabitants of the middle and southern colonies. It was nonetheless a fact it is much right to say that theology rarely concerned their thought or shaped the substance of their minds 8.

They were more devoted to religion without being zealots; while patience for religious disputes was not in their intellectual platform, since it had an obvious realistic significance. In addition to motive for colonization among people who were settled in these colonies were more likely to be commercial than religious 8.

The early culture and civilization of America were originally European, but colonial ancestors took to conserve a legacy that was all time in some danger of being lost. At that time schools were not considered the only places and not even the best places

4. Lawrence A. Cremin. American Education: The Colonial Experience1607-1783.

8. Norton, Mary Beth. Sex, Religion, and Society in Early America; or, a 17th-Century Maryland Menage a Trois and its Consequences for any assurance of the eternity of cultural legacies. In the northern & southern American colonies church service and devotion, family activity along with instruction given by general community life, had more educational consequences greater to those developed by isolated schools and infant colleges 8.

Throughout the 17th century and later in 18th & 19th centuries, schooling was given some responsibility for cultural transmission and till the time schools were defined as agencies of literacy, one reconstructs the educational setting and considered it as right to give utmost attention to schools and colleges. Still northern American colonists were not much willing, as compared to their nineteenth and twentieth-century counterparts, who considered investing schools with complete educational responsibility 5, 8.

To them home was the primary school, and each member of the family was a teacher and, somewhat, a student too. Children were taught to work to provide earning for themselves and the family, and to develop religious faith and participate with devotion. They also learned things from an oral tradition that was continued in the family and the community. Other then these teachings if the family had few books, as already having Bible, all were read and treasured. Earlier children in northern America were well instructed without even spending a single day in school 5.

The study of Andover, Massachusetts was also done by these new colonies. Greven had portrayed New England settled in American colonies as patriarchs who, by impression of their permanence and the influence of land legacies, held massive influence over even their adult children. However, by the new 18th century and the sway of 5. Edward J. Power. Religion and the Public Schools in 17th Century America

8. Norton, Mary Beth. Sex, Religion, and Society in Early America; or, a 17th-Century Maryland Menage a Trois and its Consequences patriarchy it started to diminish 5.

He gave conclusion that many subdivisions of family farms lessened the land that fathers could have distributed among their children. And as fatherly control over the economic futures of their offspring was declined, these young New Englanders challenged their country and then later left for their settlement in American colonies 5.

Greven wrote The Protestant Temperament, which was based on what was left in the most ambitious endeavors that related various religious persuasions to modes of childrearing 7. Here he opined that there were three kinds of "styles of life" prevailed among Americans between the seventeenth century till mid-nineteenth century 8. Groups like the Puritans, the Baptists, and the Methodists represents the first of these temperaments, called the "evangelical" 7. According to Greven, evangelical parents were possessed by human sins and struggled a lot for complete authority over their children by using every way and mean to "break the will" of youngsters, consequently effecting the education of children too 7.

Many children in adulthood mostly on the southern colonies of America were raised in such families that surrendered any remnant of selfhood in a cathartic conversion experience 8. The second group, by Greven dubbed "moderates" preferred a less radical approach of shaping the wills of their children by devout, religious and moral examples and thus education of such children were comparatively done in a better manner 7.

Modern Education at end of 17th Century

Modern education by the end of seventeenth century that carried on to the 18th century was due to the combination of three independent motives: religious, intellectual

5. Edward J. Power. Religion and the Public Schools in 17th Century America

7. Treckel, Paula A. In To Comfort the Heart: Women in Seventeenth-Century America.

A and utilitarian. This was however was more practiced on the north colonies of America. The educational reformation gave the religious reason for studying nature and things. Thus, according to them God has created the world and the best way to comprehend the working of the divine law was to study His creation. This religious belief was included in the schooling for a better understanding in children on religious concepts 9.

For them nature was a complementary source to the exposure of the Bible for the accomplishment of the same goal. Thus, the idea of 'propagatio fidei per scientias' was the basis of the pansophic schemes of Comenius as well as to his followers. Comeniu was not only the leader of educational reformers but also a Bishop of the Moravian Church 9.

All pioneers of education in the seventeenth century believed Christians and declared their purpose in reforming schools was actually the desire to justify the revelation of the Bible by means of scientific research 9.

These ideas were closely linked with the missionary dedication to spread Christianity among the inhabitants of the newly made schools in American colonies. Also, in all the schemes of the seventeenth century these two reasons of the propagation of Christianity among non-Christians and of the justification of faith by science were closely connected 9.

In regard to this, the Hon. Robert Boyle 1 can be considered as a representative of his time since his continuous concern was both with the work of missionary in America as well as with the introduction of the experimental study of nature, which is clearly evident in all his correspondence and schemes 9.

9. Adamson, J.W Pioneers of Modern Education in the Seventeenth Century

His donation of a fund for the purpose of establishing of Boyle Lectures for the defence of Christianity against nonbelievers by a scientific explanation of the world was a practical example that resulted in many publications later in the eighteenth century 9.

The second motive was of an earlier origin. The Platonic Academies started the movement at the end of sixteenth century in Italy. This was established to discover the secrets of nature 9.

From the beginning only this movement was undenominational as well as international and had a pantheistic tendency. This resulted in an open conflict with the Church of Rome in the burning of Giordano Bruno in the year 1600 9. Unavoidably, later it led to dissociation from the exposed religion and to an entirely rational-deistic philosophy. Nonetheless, the religious motive was not totally absent in the seventeenth century,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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