Education Provision in England and Wales Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1418 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Teaching

Education Provision in England and Wales Since World War II With Special Reference to Educational Achievement

The objective of this research is to examine education provision in England and Wales since World War II and specifically as related to educational achievement.

Following World War II in England and Wales educational reform instituted by the Education Act 1944 made an assumption that religious education and collective worship in schools would reflect the Christian Faith only. This was a time of dividing students into three primary groups based on their intellectual ability and was a time in England and Wales where economic and class differences were the methods used to provision educational possibilities to children.

EDUCATION ACT 1944

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The work of Lopez-Muniz, De Groof, and Lauwers (2006) entitled: "Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006) relates that in England and Wales today "the great diversity in the ethnic, cultural and linguistic backgrounds...poses a major challenge for the government in developing policy and formulating a legal framework for the provision of religious education and collective worship in state maintained schools." (Lopez-Muniz, De Groof, and Lauwers, 2006) These authors relate."..the tacit assumption of the Education Act 1944 that religious education and collective worship in state schools would reflect only the Christian faith and tradition no longer holds good in the twenty-first century." (Lopez-Muniz, De Groof, and Lauwers, 2006)

II. INTELLIGENCE TESTING and SCHOOL PROVISION

TOPIC: Term Paper on Education Provision in England and Wales Since Assignment

The work entitled: "Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: from 1944 to the Present Day" written by Sui-Mee Chan, Pat East, Sabia Ali and Maria Neophytou states that the Education Act of 1944 is that which "laid the foundation for education today. For decades, the recommendations it contained in it dominated the education system in England and Wales. Its main recommendations were derived from Cyril Burt's idea that intelligence tests could be used to assess a child's mental ability by the age of twelve. Reports by Hadow (1926), Spens, (1938) and Norwood (1945) claimed that it was possible to sort children into groups based on their intelligence and to allocate them to the appropriate kind of school." (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.5) the changes which were introduced by the 1944 Act included changes of:

1) County Councils were to organize education within their areas into primary, secondary and further stages;

2) Free compulsory secondary education was to be made available to all children;

3) Children between the ages of 5 and 11 were sent to primary schools; children between the ages of 11 and 15 went to a secondary school suited to their abilities and aptitudes;

4) Fees were charged in grammar schools were abolished;

5) Elementary schools were phased out;

6) Compulsory school leaving age rose from 14 to 15 in 1945 and rose again later to the age of 16;

7) Local authorities were to provide school meals, free milk and regular medical inspections; and (8) the ministry of education was crated to control and direct the implementation of school policy. (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; paraphrased)

Intelligence testing as well as English and Arithmetic abilities was conducted at around age eleven led to the identification of three groups of children:

1) Academic pupils who attended secondary grammar schools (university route);

2) Practical pupils who attended the technical schools which were vocationally-based and few of these schools existed due to the high cost of operations;

3) the remaining pupils, primarily from working-class families who attended the secondary modern school where they received a basic education. (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; paraphrased)

Therefore, the secondary educational system in England and Wales resulting from the 1944 Act was "...a tripartite system - three types of schools which, it was argued, were different but equal." (Chan, East, Ali and Chan, Neophytou, 2002; p.6) the fact is however that the "parity of esteem and prestige between grammar and secondary modern schools, which the Act had envisaged, did not occur. Competition for entry into grammar schools increased because these schools provided the major route to university and a professional career. The tripartite system also reinforced the incorrect assumption that children… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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