Educational Research Technology and Development Failure Article Review

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Educational Research Technology and Development

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Failure to plan instruction wastes valuable instruction time and actually exacerbates the achievement gap. Thoughtful intelligent planning involves linking lessons to standards, using diagnostic information to understand where students and where they need to be and attending to assessment both high stakes and Otherwise. This article discusses the use of systematic instructional planning by teachers after they have left the pre-service training environment and are in their in the academic setting. This study surveyed nine teacher of the year finalists with the purpose of investigating if systematic instructional planning was a tool used to in their daily task of delivering knowledge. The concern arose from the fact that teachers, who were finalist in a county Teacher of the Year contest, were using an alternative if any to systematic instructional planning. The sample population five secondary teachers and four were elementary school teachers, all from different establishments and teaching a variety of subject including English, History, Humanities, math, music and science. Most specifically, the groups' makeup for this case study was in all eight female teachers and one male teacher, possessing and average of 20 years experience. The study inquired to the type of planning decisions superior teachers employed when they are planning instruction and the levels of implementation ( yearly, unit, weekly, and/or daily) and the factors used by the sample when making these decisions. Using questionnaires and interviews, the study wanted to establish consistent in the use of instructional planning. The outcome of the study proved although systematic instructional planning is a tool thought to all new teachers once they leave the pre-service environment many fail to use it as a guideline for delivering instruction.

Author Purpose

Article Review on Educational Research Technology and Development Failure to Assignment

Under the Tyler model, teachers are expected to follow a seven step process in creating a format to relay instruction. The format is requires that the instructor to identify the instructional goals and objective of the lesson. They are also required to plan instructional activities and choose related media to allow for student assimilation of knowledge dispensed. The development of a post test becomes an effective tool to gage understanding as well as implementing and revising instruction. From this model Young, Reiser and Dick deduct four points essential to the lesson planning process: the identification of goals must be clearly defined and specific tot he objective that will be attained by the student. In light of those objectives, instructional activities should be geared towards attaining those objectives. The teacher should design assessment instruments that measure the objectives set by the lesson plan. Lastly, depending on student performance on the assessment tool, the instructor should revise instruction. Contrary to these guidelines, this study found that the sample of teacher used for this study demonstrated a number of shortcomings. In their during their instructional planning process, said teachers although they focus on identifying topics and their restive contents there was no clear identification as to whether they used a systematic model to format instruction. Instructional design did not include an assessment tool to calibrate student understanding. As it pertains to objectives and goals, four teachers of the sample agreed they are mandated by the state in great impact their decision making process as to what is taught in their classroom. Some admitted not even writing them down because it was already faithful to memory. Such a statement is in sharp contradiction with the systematic instructional planning process. Furthermore, in regards to the instructional materials and instructional aids to be used, they did not consider learning objective when making their selections. Assessment tools did not conform to a set of objectives. Revision of instruction was conducted due o time related constraints whereas systematic instructional planning is based on student performance. Only three teachers in the sample mentioned student performance being the reason for revision. Student instruction to instruction was also a deciding factor in instructional revisions.


Based on the results yielded by the study, although in pre-service learning sessions heavy emphasis is places on systematic instructional planning most theses in the sample which was representative a district consisting of 22 elementary schools,7 middle schools and 4 high schools, none of their delivery methods were faithful to systematic instructional planning. Every teacher in the sample used some form of alternative. Bowsher and Morgan (1989) concur that very little body of research exist that supporting teacher use of systematic instructional planning, even though their use would result in greater learning. It is also important to highlight the fact that these teachers did not use systematic instructional planning did not influence their peers decision in nominating them as superior teachers as defined by the school district. The author also points out that it safe to say that systematic instructional planning when thought to novice teachers set a foundation for developing a planning style compatible with their own characteristics and their teaching environment.

Weakness of case study

The weaknesses or flaws of this study are intrinsic to its design. Starting with the method used to collect data. By using surveys, one has to consider whether the answers are not base on personal bias and if answers are truthful. With questionnaires, we must into account the non-respondent group. A non-response occurs when members of the sample group cannot or will not participate in the survey. Although some problems can easily attribute to negligence or mistakes, many problems are unavoidable and can only be minimized rather than eliminated altogether. As non-response often biases survey results in this survey, the non-respondent greatly impacted the sample size. The overpopulation of female respondents because on the average women are more likely to participate than men. The county nominated 35 teachers as finalist, all of which received letters requesting their participation in this study. 20 responded to the request, 6 of which were no longer in the classroom environment. The 14 remaining were sent written survey.

Only 9 of the 14 surveyed returned their surveyed. Hence, the sample is comprised of 9 teachers. Hence, this sample is not truly representative of the teacher body in the particular district. Next, face-to-face interviews were also conducted. If answers are not collected at the time of the interview key information can be lost. Better to the teachers in the sample that did not write their instructional plan recalling specifics would be hard which would result in memory distortions. Case studies as whole do not allow for results that can be replicated due to uniqueness of the date. So, reliability measures are low. Results are susceptible to data collection and the interpretation of them. Those discrepancies are usually tied to questionnaire content well respondents answered questions. And how appropriately did they interviewer as questions.


The sample needs to be representative of the population. By increasing the sample a more heterogeneous population will be surveyed. If the funds are available, the project leader should consider offering cash or prize incentives or adjusting the findings to account for the sample imbalance. Questionnaires should be objective. face-to-face interviews can also be open to interviewer bias. Curtailing this problem consist of making sure that the research staff is properly trained using the same procedure for collecting data. Answers are also influence by the clarity of materials used those being surveyed need to have a precise understanding.


As descriptive case study tend to provide the research with a comparative look at what is and what we would like it to be. The comparative study allows researchers to determine areas of needs. Systematic Instructional planning is lesson planning and reflects current research that instruction should be data driven and that both teacher and students should have access to the expected outcome and to the individual student progress towards meeting said outcomes. Since the instructional plan shows individual's instruction as we move from teacher to learning. Teachers' decision… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Educational Research Technology and Development Failure" Article Review in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Educational Research Technology and Development Failure.  (2010, May 23).  Retrieved June 2, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Educational Research Technology and Development Failure."  23 May 2010.  Web.  2 June 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Educational Research Technology and Development Failure."  May 23, 2010.  Accessed June 2, 2020.