Term Paper: Educational Technologies and Online Learning, Instructional Design

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¶ … educational technologies and online learning, instructional design methods are being revised, thus evolving into new models. Two particular methods are the Dick & Carey Method and the Jerrold Kemp Model. This paper will explain these two methods and compare and contrast them.

The Dick & Carey Method

The Dick & Carey Method of instructional design uses a systems approach for designing instruction. One of the best known models, its approach to designing instruction is similar that of software engineering. The design model describes all the phases of an iterative process that starts by identifying instructional goals and ends with summative evaluation. This model prescribes a methodology for designing instruction based on a reductionist model of breaking instruction down into smaller components. Instruction is specifically targeted on the skills and knowledge to be taught and supplies the appropriate conditions for the learning of the outcomes.

There are ten complete elements that make up the Dick & Carey Model. The first element is to determine the instructional goals. What should the learners be able to do when they have completed the instruction? The second element is to analyze the instructional goals. This is a step-by-step determination of what people are doing when they perform the goal and what entry behaviors are needed. The third element of this model is to analyze the learners and the contexts. This is a description of the context in which the skills will be learned and the context in which the skills will be used. The fourth element is writing the performance objectives. This element describes the specific

ISD Comparison 2 behavior skills to be learned, the conditions under which they must be performed and the criteria for successful performance. The objectives must be something that can be physically evaluated. The fifth element of the Dick & Carey Model is the development of assessment instruments. The assessment instruments will be based on the lesson objectives. The sixth element is the development of the instructional strategy. In this element, various strategies are identified to achieve the terminal objective; there is an emphasis on presentation of information, on practice, and feedback, and on testing. The seventh element of this model is the development and selection of instruction. This element uses the stated strategy to produce instructional materials. The eighth element is to design and conduct formative evaluations. This is the actual testing of the instructional materials in one-to-one, small groups, or field evaluation so that the materials can be evaluated with learners and then revised prior to distribution. During the eighth element, any and all necessary changes will be made to the materials. This is the most important element of this model because it will determine if there are any parts of the design that are not correct. The ninth element is the revision of the instructional data obtained from the formative evaluation. All areas of difficulty and deficiencies are addressed. Finally, in the tenth element is the summative evaluation. The summative evaluation is an independent evaluation used to judge the worth of the instruction.

In general, the Dick & Carey Model stresses the importance of the student's past experiences. It explores the individual needs and interests of all students and promotes active participation. It stimulates higher order thinking skills and encourages life-long learning.

ISD Comparison 3

The Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design can also be applied to distance education. However, there are a few changes that must be modified within the model so that the instruction fits the needs of the distance learner. The instructional design must be done well in advance. It will take time to devise a plan for the distance learner. The traditional content will need to be re-tooled and more visual presentations will have to be included in the plan. These visual presentations will need to illustrate key concepts or topics using tables, figures, and other visuals. The plan will need to be designed in a way that engages the learner and it should be very interactive. The distance learning student is very different from the traditional classroom student and the instructional designer must know the difference between these two types of learners and address the different needs within the design model. The educational backgrounds and levels of the distance learner varies and the delivery method of the educational materials for a distance learner will be very different that the delivery method for a traditional learner. Therefore, the Dick & Carey model can be used with distance learning with some modifications to better meet and exceed the needs of the distance learner.

The Jerrold Kemp Model

In comparison to the Dick & Carey Model is the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The Jerrold Kemp Model takes a more holistic approach to instructional design than the Dick & Carey Model. Virtually all factors in the learning environment are taken into consideration including subject analysis, learner characteristics, learning objectives, teaching activities, resources such as computers,

ISD Comparison 4 books, etc., support services and evaluation. The process is iterative and the design is subject to constant revision. The Jerrold Kemp Model is concerned with evaluating the student's final achievement and that this might actually include following up on students after a course is completed, to determine if and how they are using or applying the knowledge, skills, and attitudes learned in the program. Feedback is then used to revise or improve the course plans. Thus, the Jerrold Kemp Model uses the application of learning as part of its final measurement.

Unlike the Dick & Carey Model, the Jerrold Kemp model is only made up of nine complete elements. The first element is to identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program. During this element, the initial planning of the design is completed. The goals are also defined. The second element of the Jerrold Kemp Model is to examine the learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning. What types of learners will be using the program? Will it be more traditional classroom students or distance learners? Will there be more audio learners or kinetic learners? During element two, the learners are identified and described. The third element identifies the subject content and analyzes task components related to stated goals and purposes. The fourth element is to state the instructional objectives for the learners. Similar to the objectives in the Dick & Carey model, these objectives must be something that is able to be physically evaluated by the teacher. The fifth element is to sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning. During this stage, the materials are put together into a logical plan. The sixth element of the Jerrold Kemp Model is to design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the ISD Comparison 5 objectives. What will the students do to meet the objectives? The seventh element is to plan the instructional message and delivery. How will the materials be presented to the learners? The eighth element is the development of the evaluation instruments that will be used to assess the objects; and finally, the ninth element is to select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

It is clearly evident that the Dick & Carey Model is more focused on the evaluation of the instructional design than is the Jerrold Kemp Model. The reason for this is because the Jerrold Kemp model of instructional design is developed for continuous revision and improvement of the plan. Constant evaluation of the Jerrold Kemp plan is done throughout the nine elements, so evaluation is not specifically stated as a separate element. The main idea is to improve any weak parts that are identified during the development cycle.

Once again, like the Dick & Carey model, the Jerrold Kemp Model can also be applied to distance learning students. However,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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