Educationists and Teachers Term Paper

Pages: 8 (3115 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 20  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Teaching

The child's sight is used in reading information, looking at diagrams or pictures, or reading what is on the teacher's board. The sense of hearing is used in listening to what the teacher says. A dyslexic child may experience difficulties with either or both of these senses. The child's vision may be affected by difficulties with tracking, visual processing or seeing the words become fuzzy or move around. The child's hearing may be satisfactory on a hearing test, but auditory memory or auditory processing may be weak.

(Bradford, J.)

An example of this teaching method is as follows.

The majority of dyslexic children experience confusion over the direction of 'b' and'd'. They can both be seen as a stick with a circle at its base. But on which side does the circle sit? A teacher might give the child a tactile (touchy/feely) experience of the letter 'b' by getting the child to draw the letter really large on the carpet. This will involve the child using their arms, their sense of balance, their whole body. They will remember the day their teacher had them 'writing' on the carpet with their hand making this great big shape, and can use that memory the next time they come to write the letter.( ibid)

3. Dysarthria

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This is a speech disorder that affects the muscles involved in the production of speech. This results I speech which is 'slow, weak, inaccurate, and hesitant" (Laberge, D.) The term Dysarthria is " ... A broad term referring to speech impediments that result from poor coordination or weakness of muscles in the tongue, lips or palate." (Frames, R. 1991)

Term Paper on Educationists and Teachers in the Assignment

Sufferers often exhibit symptoms such as slurred speech, vocal harshness as well as inappropriate stress and a reduced rate of speaking. (ibid) In the classroom the teacher can make the other students aware of the disorder, and therefore more supportive. There are various exercises that can be introduced. The following is a description of the possible ways of dealing with the problem which can be adapted for the classroom. "For his speech, we started him on oral motor exercises and articulation drills, and prescribed a supplementary speech synthesizer to help him communicate while speech therapy was under way." (ibid)

Another aspect that the teacher can work on is " ... controlling prosody or the phrasing of speech" (ibid); this is often improved by the method of grouping fewer words together. Working on improving the posture of the sufferer can help as well ... strengthening the head and neck muscles, getting better control of the shoulders, and improving posture -- often by anchoring the hips when sitting in a wheelchair. Deep breathing exercises also can help make speech clearer." (ibid)

The teacher can also help by improving the communications environment. This can be done though simpler techniques such as direct eye contact; the closer positioning of speaker and listener, and reduction of background noise interference all help. (ibid)

3. Apraxia

Apraxia is a speech disorder in which voluntary muscle movement is impaired without muscle weakness. It therefore differs from dysarthria in that it is not a physical movement problem as such and is therefore more amenable to classroom therapies. Apraxia results from ... An impaired ability to generate the motor programs for speech movements rather than from the disordered transmission of controlling messages to the speech musculature. Apraxia is a planning/programming problem, not a movement problem like dysarthria. (McCaffrey, C.P. 2001)

There are two main types of Apraxia: these are Buccofacial Apraxia and Verbal Apraxia. "Buccofacial Apraxia impairs the ability to move the muscles of the mouth for non-speech purposes such as coughing, swallowing, and wiggling of the tongue. Verbal Apraxia impairs the proper sequencing of speech sounds." (ibid)

This problem can be dealt with in a number of ways by both the parent and the teacher. There are a number of classroom exercises that can be used to help the child with this condition. One of these is verbalization. "Verbalizing is hard work for children, so our job as parents, therapists, and teachers is to find ways to make the practice less of a chore and more of a sheer delight that will provide confidence in kids and empower them to initiate practice on their own.

(Kids Express Train) This can also be achieved through song for those at a very young age.

5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of many childhood disorders brought to the public attention in recent years. 'Hyperactivity' is a word that is banded about rather loosely, so it is important to define the problem more precisely. A hyperactive child is one who is over-active and displays significant inattention and impulsiveness. The result is chaotic and disorganized behavior which if severe enough may adversely affect normal development. As the child grows up, anti-social conduct can lead to behavioral problems that may affect school performance. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), "ADHD affects 3-5% of children in the United States." (Waldman, I.D. et al. 1998)

ADD/ADHD is generally identified during the primary school years. Attention deficit is suspected if the child is easily distracted, unable to follow more than one instruction at a time or does not listen when spoken to directly. The child may be considered hyperactive if he or she has trouble participating in 'quiet' activities such as reading, talks excessively or runs and climbs in inappropriate situations. The child is regarded impulsive when blurting out answers before questions have been completed, displays disruptive behavior, or constantly interrupts others.

Since young children do not advance at the same pace there is a legitimate concern that special adjustments are necessary to challenge individual learners to maintain and enhance their motivation to achieve. First, teachers in early childhood classrooms need to observe the child's performance - cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, self-help, and aesthetic capabilities -- in traditional early childhood areas of learning. Second, by relating these observations to age-appropriate behaviors and characteristics teachers might be able to identify individualistic intelligences and potential giftedness. "Developmental appropriateness has three dimensions - age appropriateness, individual appropriateness and culture appropriateness." (DeBord, K. 1997)

Early childhood educators should also examine the long-term effects of inappropriate practices such as using readiness testing, holding younger children out of school, or raising the entrance age which "are at best short-term solutions, and at worst, harm children and contribute to inappropriate expectations." (Bredenkamp, S. 1990)

There are a number of strategies that the teacher can use to help the ADD child. Firstly the teacher should recognize that the ADD is not a lack of attention, but rather too much attention. The ADD pupil is in fact absorbing too much and paying attention to all the activities around him or her. The teacher can therefore help by reducing the noise and activity in the classroom. The student also needs a structured environment in which to work.

Children with ADD need specific help when it comes to focusing. For them, the classroom can be very much like that crowded restaurant. Many teachers isolate children with ADD in order to reduce distractions. (While it is true that moving a child with ADD away from the group can help them focus, it should not be seen as a time-out or punishment. (Zeiger, J.)


Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site:

Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site:

Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site:

DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site:

Dyslexia. Retrieved February 5, 2005, Web site:

Fleming C. (1991) Pediatrics for Parents, Retrieved January 6, 2005. Web site:

Frames, R. (1991) You deserve freedom of speech!. Retrieved February 7, 2005 from Inside MS, Spring, 1991 . Web site:

Jacobs, Leonard. (2002) Conquering speech impediments. (Spotlight on Speech, Diction, and Voice-Overs), Back Stage, July 19.

Johnson, Wendell. Speech Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Wendell Johnson Memorial Home Page. Web site:

Kids Express Train. Retrieved February 6, 2005, Web site;

Laberge, D. Speech disorders. Retrieved February 5, 2005, from the Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Web site:

McCaffrey, C.P. (2001) Dysarthria vs. Apraxia: A Comparison. Retrieved February 4, 2005, from The Neuroscience on the Web Series. Web site:

Speech-Language Pathology. Retrieved February 5, 2005, from Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Web site:

Speech Impairments. Retrieved February 5, 2005, Web site:

Stammering. Retrieved February 5, 2005, Web site:

Waldman, I.D. et al. (1998) Association and Linkage of the Dopamine Transporter Gene and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: Heterogeneity owing to Diagnostic Subtype and Severity. Retrieved December 19, 2004. Web site:… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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