Job Satisfaction and Burnout in Registered Nurses Dissertation

Pages: 20 (4330 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 41  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Nursing

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
The emotional exhaustion component of burnout has been associated with stress-related health outcomes. Emotional exhaustion predicts an increased rates of illness, fatigue, substance misuse, depression, anxiety, and irritability (Ducharme et al. 2008). Turnover among human service occupations has adverse implications not only for the organization, but also for the clients. Clients may suffer setbacks such as loss of trust when their clinical services are disrupted by their therapists. Turnover can intensify stress among the remaining therapists whose caseloads increase making the organization to hire temporary staff or newer less-experienced to fill the vacant positions (Ducharme et al.2008). Replacing staff is time-consuming and costly. There are costs associated with recruitment, training, and supporting new employees until their performance reaches a satisfactory level. Turnover causes a disruption in service provision and in the client-provider relationship.

Evidence suggests that a good work environment is an important factor in the recruitment and retention of health workers. Furthermore, the work environment can influence the quality of care and patient safety. As a working definition, an attractive and supportive workplace in this case can be described as an environment that attracts individuals into the health professions, encourages them to remain in the health workforce and enables them to perform effectively.

3 METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research Design

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This study uses a quantitative descriptive-correlation to determine the impact of work environment on a quality of care, intent to leave, burnout and job satisfaction among Registered Nurses in Saudi Arabia.

3.2. Sample and Population

Dissertation on Job Satisfaction and Burnout in Registered Nurses Assignment

After obtaining the IRB approval from the hospitals, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit Registered Nurses working in the different departments in the hospitals. A total of 545 Registered staff nurses in three governmental hospitals in Riyadh Saudi Arabia with more than one-year work experience consented to participate in the study. This sample size is based on a 0.05 margin of error and a 95% confidence interval.

3.3. Instrument

Registered nurses were asked to fill out a form to provide their demographic characteristics such as age, gender, civil status, the highest degree of education, area of assignment and employment status.

3.3.1. Nurse work environment.

Nurse work environment will be assessed by the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (Lake, 2002), which is the most widely reported measure used to gauge the quality of nursing practice environment. The PES-NWI is composed of 31 items that have been organized into five subscales: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse managerial ability, leadership, and support for nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relations. The potential scores ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree) on a 4-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated more agreement that the subscale items were present in the current job. Nurse responses in each item will be aggregated for each subscale to create a hospital-level mean of the subscales. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the PES-NWI in subscales 1 to 5 are 0.87, 0.90, 0.87, 0.91, and 0.85, respectively. Its discriminant validity has been shown in its ability to detect differences in the nurse practice environments of hospitals.

3.3.2. Job Outcomes

The categories that measure nurses' job outcome are job satisfaction, intention to leave, burnout and nurse-assessed quality of care. Job satisfaction is measured by a single item that asked nurses' perception about their satisfaction with their present jobs. The response categories ranged from 1 (very satisfied) to 4 (very dissatisfied) on a Likert scale. Higher scores indicate that nurses are dissatisfied with their current job. Reliability of published tests for a single item of nurse job satisfaction was in the range of 0.70 (Wanous, Reichers, &Hudy, 1997).

Burnout will be measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI) (Maslach et al.,1996), using 20 items tapping three separate dimensions: emotional exhaustion (8 items), depersonalization (5 items) and personal accomplishment (7 items). Respondents are rated based on the frequencies with which they experience various job-related feelings on a 7-point scale ranging from 0 ('never experienced such a feeling') to 6 ('experience such feelings every day'). High scores on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low scores on personal accomplishment scale are considered indicative of burnout. Reliability coefficients are .88 for Emotional Exhaustion (EE), .70 for Depersonalisation (DP), and .83 for Personal Accomplishment (PA).

Regarding "intention to leave," nurses will be asked the following question: "Are you planning to leave your present job in the next year?" "Yes" is graded as 1; "No" is graded as 2. (Stone, Mooney-Kane, Larson, et al. 2007)

The variable of "nurse-assessed quality of care" is measured by a single item that asked nurses' perception about the quality of nursing care delivered to their unit. The response categories ranged from 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor) on a Likert-scale, with higher scores indicating poorer levels of quality. This single-item measure has been used extensively in international work and has established predictive validity (Aiken, Clarke, & Sloane, 2008) with Cronbach's coefficients in the range of 0.92 to 0.94. Single item measurements are useful when the construct is unambiguous (Wanous, Reichers, & Hudy, 1997) or when a holistic impression is informative. Single item measures are used because of their convenience, and are useful when participants are busy or perhaps dismissive of the academic pedantry that multiple item measures manifest (Wanous, Reaches, & Hudy, 1997).

3.4. Data Collection Procedures

After the Institution Review Board (IRB) approval the questionnaires were distributed and explained to the target respondents with a consideration of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All data collected were coded and entered in the Excel software for the analysis.

3.5. Data Analysis methods[END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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