Effect of HRVB on Stress Dissertation

Pages: 16 (4499 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 27  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Health  ·  Written: April 26, 2017

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
284).

The interplay of the central nervous system and the breathing process is evident therefore in this case as well as others.

Measure of the Parasympathetic Function

Gibbons, Cheshire and Fife (2014) have shown that one common autonomic testing term is the cardiovagal. Here the parasympathetic response is measured by way of the cardiac function, which is controlled by the vagus nerve -- which in turn impacts the variability of the heart rate. Zygmunt and Stanczyk (2010) have also pointed out that "changes in heart rate during orthostatic testing and Valsalva manoeuvre, as well as during deep breathing or diving reflex, reflect parasympathetic modulation" (p. 11). Essentially, the cardiovascular system works because the vagal brake acts as a modulator: it is a restraint, as described by Dr. Stephen Porges in his Polyvagal Theory. As Porges (2001) has noted, the vagus places a limitation on the heart rate, though when vagal tone is taken away, rapid escalation of stress can result.

Heart Rate Control

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Dissertation on The Effect of HRVB on Stress Assignment

Heart rate is controlled by the autonomic nervous system's two branches -- the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The former produces hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) to boost heart rate, while the latter produces acetylcholine to decelerate heart rate. Heart rate can be impacted by various external factors, such as stress, coffee (caffeine), anxiety, excitement, environment, etc. Efforts to lower the heart rate or to steady it when it is impacted by stressors such as these include meditation and slow breathing. This is where the idea of HRV comes from -- the practice of taking slow, deliberate, thoughtful and purposeful breaths that can help the body to regain control of itself in the face of stressors that are external to it or that are part of the body's overall processes as a result of disease or infection. An example of how the heart is controlled by the body can be seen when one is engaging in exercise: when the body is actively moving in exercise, the sympathetic system actives and causes the heart rate to accelerate rapidly. The more that a person exercises, the more the heart itself is worked and the more the heart's actual size can even increase, just as a muscle in the arms or legs will increase when these particular parts of the body are used again and again regularly over a given period of time.

Allostasis

Allostasis (stability by variability) in stress research has received some attention over recent years. It plays a role with hormonal mediators in stress response as McEwen (2000) has shown. However, one of the challenges that researchers are uncovering is that the allostatic load center around the brain can be lead to impairment over time as environmental challenges trigger a continuation of stress for persons in certain instances where stressors are predominant factors of life: "In anxiety disorders, depressive illness, hostile and aggressive states, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), allostatic load takes the form of chemical imbalances as well as perturbations in the diurnal rhythm, and, in some cases, atrophy of brain structures. In addition, growing evidence indicates that depressive illness and hostility are both associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other systemic disorders" (McEwen, 2000, p. 108). The allostatic load can be described as the wear and tear that a body undergoes over time as situations of chronic stress appear. The physiological consequence of long-term exposure to repeated stressors can lead to allostatic overload.

In terms of resilience, which is characterized by the ability to respond to environmental stressors and return the body to a state of normalcy. However, in chronic cases, resilience is repeatedly tried and can be broken, just as in war, a wall may be destroyed through repeated use of a battering ram. In the case of the body undergoing constant stress, the wall of resilience that it puts up to fend off the attacks of stressors can wear out eventually. Beaton and Simon (2011) note that one big event that is stressful in one's life can be enough to harm resilience -- just as in the case of modern warfare a battering ram is replaced by the use of explosives: one wall-shattering bomb will do the trick in bringing the wall (or one's resilience) down in tatters. Specifically, Beaton and Simon (2001) state that "traumatic early life experiences can shape the physiological stress response over development and are predictive of atypical hypothalamic -- pituitary -- adrenal (HPA) axis activation and neuroendocrine dysregulation" (p. 69). The rise of a traumatic event, however, is not necessary in contributing to allostatic overload, though it certainly can. Allostatic overload can occur as a result of continued stress over time on the body.

Allostatic Overload

The concept of allostatic overload is important to this study because it essentially equates to a decrease in HRV. Beaton and Simon (2011) highlight how allostatic overload can negatively impact the body:

Allostatic load is the physiological cost of maintaining homeostasis when faced with severe or chronic stress. Allostasis can occur via physiological (e.g., cortisol release or blood pressure elevation) or behavioral (e.g., avoiding stress-inducing stimuli) mechanisms that are elicited in response to real or perceived challenges. While modulated by individual differences in genotype, experience, and environment, allostatic load can increase over time to the point of overload and exhaustion. Allostatic overload exhausts coping resources and overexposes the organism to the hormonal, immunological, and neural mediators released via chronic activation and dysregulation of the HPA axis. Allostatic overload can also manifest as an inability to habituate to stressors, a failure to inhibit the stress response when not needed or as the lack of an effective stress response when one is truly… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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