Effect of Single Child Family Structure on the Communication Process Research Proposal

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¶ … Child Family Structure on the Communication Process

"the family is an extraordinarily rich context or gathering information on human social behavior"

(Floyd & Haynes, 2005, p. 79).

During a hard-line speech in 1979, Deng Xiaoping initially stressed that China's one child policy be put into practice, Steven W. Mosher (2006), president of the Population Research Institute in Front Royal, Virginia, reports in the publication, "China's one-child policy: Twenty-five years later." By 1981, the one child policy had been implemented throughout China. The "technical policy on family planning," which followed two years later, is still in force today. The "technical policy" requires:

IUDs for women of childbearing age with one child, sterilization for couples with two children (usually performed on the woman), and abortions for women pregnant without authorization. (Mosher, 2006, A quarter century…section, ¶ 4).

Chinese government statistics report that by the mid-1980s, birth-control surgeries-abortions, sterilizations, and IUD insertions totaled approximately 30 million plus annually. Women who submitted to the majority of these procedures reportedly did so only because they were under duress (Mosher, 2006).Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Research Proposal on Effect of Single Child Family Structure on the Communication Process Assignment

The government publication, "Profile series China: Family planning policy and practice in the People's Republic of China" (1995), published by the INS Resource Information Center, the agency also reports that the Chinese Government began advocating a one-child policy in 1979. This policy which encouraged all couples to have only one child, however, permitted particular couples, for example, couples with only one daughter, to have a second child, albeit with appropriate birth spacing. The policy nevertheless forbids third and higher-order childbearing. During 1984, in a statement noted as Document No. 7, the Party Central Committee set forth a modified policy of the one child policy. Although public sources have quoted or paraphrased particular parts of this document, the full text has reportedly not been published. The publicly-available provisions of Document No. 7 are said to "contain an interesting contradiction" as the "provisions call for the moderation of coercive tactics while requiring the attainment of the same population targets and the use of the same methods outlined in the 1983 policy" (Profile series China…, p. 3).

Hypothesis and Sub-Questions

The Hypothesis for the proposed study queries: How do the communication methods that children in single child families use compare to those of children in a multi-child family in China? The researcher plans to address the three following sub-questions to support the proposed study's hypothesis:

1. What concerns do some scholars, communication researchers and psychologists attribute to China's one-child policy?

2. What characteristics do children of single child families traditionally possess?

3. What characteristic do children of multi-child families traditionally possess?

During the proposed study, along with addressing the three sub-research questions, the researcher will relate the definitions of relevant terms and concepts.

Study Rationale

Along with numerous contradictions and misleading statements relating to the one child policy in China, a number of conflicting perceptions also encompass the perceptions regarding the impact of these policies, particularly on the "one child" resulting from the policies. Exploring how the communication methods that children in single child families use compare to those of children in a multi-child family in China, the researcher expects, will provide valuable information to proffer considerations for those in positions of power in China, as well as, children from single child and multi-children families.

NEED MORE PERSONAL INFO ADDED IN THIS SECTION WHEN REWORKED FOR FINAL PAPER.

B. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

For the proposed study, the researcher ascribes to the life-span developmental perspective.

Theoretical Perspective Characteristics

In "Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology," Linda M. Woolf (1998) reports that the following portray characteristics of the life-span perspective:

1. Criteria 1 -- holism: The whole person is perceived from a multidisciplinary perspective, including psychological, physiological, historical, sociological, and cultural factors.

2. Criteria 2 - contextual change: Development is considered an interaction of the individual within his/her context. For example, normative age-graded influences, normative history-graded influences, and nonnormative influences are all examined to study their effect on the individual. "These three influences have been used to account for the nature of life-span development, both its regularity and its multidirectionality, multidimensionality, and interindividual differences" (Woolf, 1998, Theoretical Perspectives section, ¶ 7),

3. Criteria 3 - qualitative and quantitative change: Change is simultaneously viewed as evolving from both differences in kind and degree. For example, in childhood, memory may be qualitatively different yet in adulthood, be quantitatively different.

4. Criteria 4: - continuity and discontinuity: Because of the previously noted three influences on development, change is also perceived as continuous and discontinuous.

5. Criteria 5 - no stages: The concept of stages is not inherent to the developmental dimensions and life-span perspectives. Instead, chronological age, cohorts, and life transitions, are utilized as descriptive dimensions (Woolf, 1998).

The following five developmental issues, Woolf (1998) explains, constitute components of the life-span developmental perspective:

1. The perspectives are holistic. Behaviors are seen as part of a whole system.

2. & #8230;Change is seen neither as due to changes in structure or external forces. Rather, change is in response to the interaction of the individual and the context.

3. & #8230;Change occurs in both differences in degree and differences in kind; both qualitatively and quantitatively. This change is dependent on the asynchronies between the individual and the context.

4. & #8230;As change is both qualitative and quantitative, it is also both continuous and discontinuous.

5. & #8230;The concept of stages is not relevant to this perspective except descriptively. No universal stages are defined as the interaction of individual and context is continuously changing. (Woolf, 1998, Theoretical Perspectives section, ¶ 6)

According to Woolf (1998), the life-span perspective proves consistent with the contextual world view.

For the proposed literature review, the researcher plans to implement a thematic organization of the literature. The following three themes identify those to be investigated during the forthcoming literature review:

1. China's One-Child Policy Concerns

2. Children of Single Child Families

3. Children of Multi-Child Families

China's One-Child Policy Concerns

One reason for the one-child policy evolved from the desire to ensure China's population does not expand to the extent that it becomes impossible to take care of each a person. The article, "Putting the brakes on reproduction," (2004) published in Canada and the World Backgrounder, asserts that the "one-child policy," aimed at encouraging couples to have a single baby simultaneously advocated for a couple to delay both marriage and child bearing" (¶ 3). Although not formally written into law, many families do not object to this policy and believe it does proffer advantages, including economic perks, educational advantages and social enhancements. As it costs less to raise one child, a family saves money. The one child may also reportedly obtain a better education, as it is less difficult to educate one child. In the social realm, officials claim the program "has prevented 300 million births and has headed off food shortages and starvation. And, it will foster a less populous future: by the end of the 21st century, some expect the population to drop to as little as 700 million" (Putting the brakes…, 2004, ¶ 4). The one child policy reportedly contends that a better life would be likely to follow if China does not become overpopulated.

Chinese tradition encourages children to take care of their parents when they are elderly. Most couples prefer s son as a daughter joins her husband's family when she marries. The one child policy has forced families to face heart-wrenching decisions. Frequently, when a woman becomes pregnant with a girl, she may have the female fetus aborted.

Children of Single Child Families

China's one-child policy has led to a generation of "Little Emperors," spoiled by doting parents and grandparents. They are members of what is known as "one-mouth, six-pocket" families (two parents and four grandparents]. There are more than t00 million of them, forming what one writer described as the largest Me Generation ever. Some studies have shown that these children are less interested in tradition than their elders, so the whole notion of having sons to look after parents in their old age could backfire (Putting the brakes…, 2004, Spoiled children section, ¶ 1).

Some experts contend the one child policy has birthed a generation of "Little Emperors" as their families reportedly spoil the one child. Still others perceive that the current generation may possibly constitute the largest ever group of the "ME generation" because of these "one-mouth, six-pocket" families (two parents and four grandparents)" (Putting the brakes…, 2004, Spoiled children section, ¶ 1). A concern related to spoiling the one child contends that this practice may contribute to them becoming so self-centered may contribute to the demise of the tradition of taking care of parents when they are older. A number of studies have also suggested that although these spoiled children may appear to be somewhat lazier than children from a multi-family home, they still display independent traits and possess similar views on marriage and family as their parents. Some researchers report that when compared to children with siblings, the… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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