Effects of Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease Thesis

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Nutrition and CVD

Cardiovascular disease or CVD is a disorder affecting the heart or the body system of blood vessels (American Association for Clinical Chemistry 2009). Most cases of CVD are usually attributed to obesity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, too much smoking and alcohol use, and low vegetable and fruit intake (Perspectives in Health 2007). It is believed that a combination of treatment and education is the best approach to CVD. Singling out smoking as a major cause, former Pan American Health Organization Director George Allayne pointed to tobacco taxation as a most cost-effective intervention for this disease. He also said that cost-effective medical treatments should include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, off-patent statins and aspirin. A polypill, which incorporated many medications, for long-term use was considered ideal. But education should cap all efforts. Health care workers must assiduously follow clinical guidelines. Patients must be educated on the importance of following their medical regimens and doctor's orders (Perspectives in Health).

Organic Pollutants Cause CVD

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Studies showed that exposure to persistent organic pollutants or POPs can be another cause of CVD (Ha et al. 2007). POPs are lipophilic stable chemicals, which can accumulate in adipose tissue. Eventually, they become a lasting toxic body burden. Findings of the studies revealed that exposure to these pollutants increases atherogenic serum lipid levels in both man and animal. They damage the endothelial cells through oxidative stress. The rise of serum lipid levels and the damage to endothelial cells combined to pose the risk of CVD. Another study conducted in other areas contaminated with POPs found that residents had a higher incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 with 889 participants (Perspectives in Health).

CVD-Depression Link

Thesis on Effects of Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease Assignment

Medical experts predicted that ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases would be the leading causes of death in the world (Kamphuis e al 2007). Studies showed that depression is linked to the CVD in those with the disease and in the general population without it. The assumption on the connection was drawn from the low intake of n-3 FAs, EPA and DHA. These nutrients are all found mainly in fish. The Zutphen Elderly Study was conducted on 332 men, aged 70-90 who did not have CVD or diabetes in 1990. Their diets and demographic characteristics, educational levels and lifestyles were also examined. The study found that roughly 22% of them exhibited mild-to-severe depression symptoms at the time of the study. A follow-up 10 years later found that 170 or 52% of them had died, 92 or 28% of CVD. The findings suggested that an increased intake of n-3 FAs could reduce the risk of depression and, consequently, of CVD (Kamphuis et al.).

N-3 Fatty Acids and CVD

Increased consumption of N-3 fatty acids, mainly from fish, could reduce coronary artery disease, several studies said (Erkkila et al. 2003). A five-year Finish cohort study of the European Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events made this conclusion on four groups of 415 participants. On follow-up, 36 of them had died, 21 with myocardial infarctions and 12 with strokes. Those with high levels of fatty cholesterol esters had greater CVD risks than those with lower cholesterol levels. Fish consumption was associated with lower risk of death. This was on account of higher serum levels of N-3 fatty acids in serum lipids found (Erkkila et al.).

Garlic Does Not Lower Cholesterol Level

Christopher Gardner, a nutrition scientist at the Stanford Prevention Research Center, reported this finding (Feder 2007). In a team study, which he headed, found that garlic works only in a test tube, on cells and in rats, but not in human beings. The finding contradicted those of previous investigations. These claimed that garlic's active ingredient, allicin, can reduce cholesterol levels. Gardner said those previous studies were sponsored by… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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