Term Paper: Effects of Outsourcing and Globalization on American Workers

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¶ … Outsourcing and Globalization on American Workers

Concept of globalization

Globalization is one of the extremely challenged subjects in social science. Spectators and theorists of globalization have severally reasoned that the speedy rise in cross-border economic, social, technological and cultural switch-over is humanizing, damaging, or frail, courtesy Albert Hirschman's renowned similes. "Globalization of Markets" by Harold Levit or 'Borderless World by Kenich Ohmae assures limitless affluence and consumer delight due to the outcome of globalization which means the global is humanizing. In a cutting departure of this viewpoint, the historian Paul Kennedy cautions in the book 'Preparing for the Twenty-first Century' against our absence of formations to tackle a global universe, whereas political economist Dani Rodrik alerts us in an identical manner in the book 'Has Globalization Gone Too Far' about the growing inhibited global economic and monetary stream. Not like the believers to either the humanizing or the damaging opinions of globalization, other academicians e.g. Paul Hirst, Grahame Thompson in the book 'Globalization in Question', and Robert Wade in 'Globalization and its limits', view it as a weak procedure that has not yet confronted the nation-state and other basic characteristics of the present global scenario. (Guillen, 2001)

Globalization, privatization, economic liberalization has at the moment become leading strength molding societies and economies across the globe. With the decline of communism and plummeting of socialism in nearly every region of the globe, these procedures have sped up during the 1990s. (Rao, 1998) Globalization is quickly coming to be one of catchphrase of the 1990s. Progresses in telecommunication and information technology as also the growing permissiveness of the borders of the countries have played a part in the mounting velocity of globalization. The writings on marketing and other business disciplines have concentrated primarily on the economic shape of globalization. The past few years have witnessed turbulent modifications in the social and political scene of the universe. The erstwhile controlled markets have at present enthusiastically welcomed the ideals of market economies, and the attention of several businesses has moved to these budding markets. (Rao, 1998)

Advantages of globalization

The 1990s are exemplified by remarkable growth on a global scale that transforms the character of international business as also domestic businesses. These impressive progresses comprises the political and economic transformations in Eastern Europe and Russia, which in its way have resulted in finding new opportunities to a broad array of business actions. Multinational corporations have shifted into these spheres to corner the benefits of these novel scopes. Japan is growing to be an economic strength in the Asia Pacific area. Europe is progressing in the direction of economic unification, resulting in a unified European Community. A latest key growth is taking more areas of the free trade agreement from the United States and Canada to Mexico, leading to NAFTA which is the North American Free Trade Agreement. In the new century, realigned important economic markets which would comprise North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific might surface. (Rao, 2001)

Other markets external to these areas will also build new coalitions and come out as key economic markets. Breakthrough in information technology and new developments in logistics are resulting in an internationally unified business structure. In such a system, awareness, trained personnel, goods and services turn up to be very portable. Manufacturers of goods and services, usually vie domestically as well as in the international markets. Therefore small businesses and service sectors that were regarded historically by the economists as "non-trade" areas have to join global business and competition. The huge multinational corporations would depend on small businesses regarding goods and services and hence impact their accomplishment based on achievement at the echelons of international norms. Due to globalization, the small businesses will come out thriving. (Rao, 2001) it has enabled communication of labor at the continental stage to manage activities for the protection of workers.

Disadvantages of Globalization

Globalization is sometimes conceived of as the investment of capital as a mode of avoiding the bargaining with structurized labor. The movement of capital and involvement of new techniques of production have distorted the equilibrium of authority between the capital and labor. The authority of the capital has increased to a great extent. The status of labor has greatly denounced by the growing unemployment, increasing insecurity and enhanced inequality. The state that provides a ray of hope for safeguarding the interest of the labor from the operating market forces seems to have lost the essential power and capacity. This has been advocated prototype that irrespective of the fact that the states desire or attempt to safeguard their populations from the emerging forces of global markets, they are not capable of doing the same. Globalization being the acronym for market forces and investor-power necessitates that labor and social structure are required to be liberalized and completely surrendered under the control of the market forces. (McBride, 2000)

Such economic liberalization aggravates the widening gap between rich and poor amidst all the developing countries. Simultaneously, the other components of globalization have growing inequalities of political power and influence, as well as signifying new dimensions of inequality. One group of nation visualizes the globalization as an element that results in erosion of the consistency and practicability of the state. But other countries feel strengthened with the process of globalization, as they are better tunes to familiarize themselves and take advantage of new opportunities. Moreover, the widespread inequality of the authorities enjoyed by the states is quite significant and more pronounced to be an increasing volume of far-reaching rules, rights, and values that are being affirmed and exerted worldwide. (Hurrell; Woods, 1999)

The countries with the authority to restructure the outcomes and to regulate the international institutions are formulating new principles and new norms ranging from economic investment to military security, environmental management, or social policy. The states have low powers are even increasingly becoming the 'rule takers'. Further the technological advances, far from exerting more equality among the states and other groups are in fact widening the pools between the different regions and states. In respect of military activities, the more updated technologies have revolutionized the military affairs and resulting in the concentration of military power with the United States and its principal allies. Above all the globalization is aggravating the inequalities of resources, capabilities and probably and most significantly the capacity to make and break rules in the international arena. (Hurrell; Woods, 1999)

Outsourcing

Even though the term outsourcing might be comparatively fresh to business, the methodology of it is old. Traditionally, a number of corporate establishments have listed out the assistance of external specialists to aid with duties too clumsy to accomplish in their offices. Legal and financial specialists, coupled with numerous other experts, have since been asked to help businesses in spheres external to their main proficiencies. It has been noted by Jones that outsourcing has been a universal business expression for roughly 20 years. Krajewski and Ritzman describe outsourcing as entrusting assignments to contractors and distributors to give required services and materials and to do these processes that the organization does not do on its own. (Hormozi; Hostetler; Middleton 2003) Outsourcing entails a long-term association based on agreement for business services from an outside service provider. These associations are more and more popular in a broad multiplicity of business ventures. (Lever, 1997)

The concept of multinational companies is particularly confined to America during 1960s. The amazing power of the multinationals from United States was so irresistible that the Europeans to illustrate are critically worried over the American predominance in their domestic markets. The decades of 1970s and the 1980s visualized the development of multinational firms originating in Europe, Japan, and a number of newly industrialized countries were to close down with the threat of American dominance. The increasing wave towards multinationals generated new competitive atmosphere world wide and simultaneously resulted in disintegration of traditional trade. Such changed circumstances authorized the liberalization of the corporate strategies. (Rao, 2001)

In the environment of global competitive atmosphere some authors have emphasized that the well managed modern company is required to emphasize globally adaptable products those are not only updated and reliable but also visualized to be functional, and of better quality and comparatively cheaper instead of being market-customized products for each national market. The expression of such divergent situational advantages drives the concern for global outsourcing to become more significant. The outsourcing approach normally indicates to the detection of the production units that cater to the specified markets and the mode of supply of components for production.

Initially the multinationals resorted to the polycentric approaches by which the operations were coordinated on a country-by-country basis. Presently the widespread expansion of multinational firms resulting in growing consciousness of the competitive advantage gained from coordinating and integrating the business activities beyond the national boundaries. As a result of the development of worldwide marketing in integration of the cross national sourcing strategies has become a matter of great concern. The approaches to outsourcing is considered to be multidimensional and inclusive of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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