Term Paper: Effects of Zionism on the Peace Process Between Israel and the Palestinians

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¶ … Zionism on the peace process between Israel and Palestinians brief history and forms of Zionism

Brief history of Jewish way to the own state

Creating an own state - Israel

The history of Israeli territory

Arab anti-Semitism and conflicts

When talking about such complicated and very uneasy question as Zionism is, we have to research the process during which it was formed and developed. Zionism is rather spread among Jews and has many followers among both Israelites and Jewish Diaspora because many "religious Jews today possess the sole remaining form of Jewish nationalism with any of the basic building blocks of a living idea:(Yoram Hazony, the Zionist Idea and Its Enemies).

Unfortunately practically all countries blame Jews for being Zionists as they find this movement dangerous and aggressive, but they don't want to understand the reasons of such Jewish reaction on aggression against them and nobody even tries to find out who Zionists are in fact and what aims do they have. Even many Jews living in their young state Israel don't like Zionists and blame them for their aggression against Palestinians but they don't know or just don't want to know that Israel appeared on the political map only because of Zionists' activists who dreamed about creating their own state not to suffer from citizens (we have to remember Czarist Russia, Soviet Union and Nazi Germany) of other countries they were forced to live in. Unfortunately "the majority of Orthodox Jews of the world have not accepted Zionist ideology, which does advocate human endeavour on behalf of the establishment of a Jewish national state" (Hertzberg, Arthur the Fate of Zionism: A Secular Future for Israel & Palestine p. 2).

To begin with let us refer to the origins of Zionism, its ideology and philosophy and also different forms of this movement.

Jewish scientists divide Zionism into the following orientations:

Political Zionism valued international contacts and considered international guarantees to create Jewish state in Palestine as the main condition of fulfilling Zionists' plans. This orientation of Zionism is associated with Benjamin Theodore Herzl who found Jewish problem political to be of such kind that could be only solved in cooperation with major countries of the world. Zionist movement was organized during Basal congress in 1897 and proclaimed a program according to which Jewish nation had a right to have "a public shelter in the land of Palestine." In other words Zionist leaders established a Zionist program, which had to create a Jewish state protected by international law and let Jews live and work in their own country.

Practical Zionism had more active program, which could be fulfilled by Jews separately from other nations' will. It foresaw colonization of Palestinian land, creation of agricultural settlements, establishment of own state organs, educational system, justice etc. At the beginning of the 20th century after all plans to create a state had failed this form of Zionism became one of the most effective: many Jews went to Palestine and settler there and we should be grateful to them for their small settlements became modern developed cities nowadays.

Synthetic Zionism (was formed in 1907 during the 4th Zionist Congress) is an independent form of Zionism and can be considered as a combination of political and practical forms. Its program called Jews to use both methods: combine political activities with practical ones. Synthetic Zionists valued propaganda in Jewish Diaspora: spreading modern knowledge, uniting all Jews wherever they were... Synthetic Zionism is characterized now with the principles of political realism, cooperation, and new way of thinking according to current situation. Very soon after 10th Zionist Congress this form became dominant and now it is the most spread Zionist movement.

Socialistic Zionists (was formed at the end of 19th century) planned to unite and strengthen Jewish nation using combination of Socialism and Zionism. Followers of this movement were not sure that Jews could solve all their problems in case of Socialistic revolutions in the countries they lived in, but to solve the problem of Jewish nation they needed to settle in one place, be united and go in future only under the conditions of cooperation. Ber Vorokhov (famous follower of this Zionist orientation) was convinced that all Jews would have to go and settle in Palestine because of development of Capitalist relations in the world, especially in Europe. But Socialistic Zionist movement was not united: it was separated in two parts (some of them considered themselves more Zionists than Socialists; another part of them used Marxist ideology).

Revisionist Zionism is a continuation of Political Zionism, which was improved by Vladimir Zhabotinskiy's ideas (Zhabotinskiy created a Union of Revisionists in 1925). Revisionists demanded radicalization of Zionist activities and wanted to force Great Britain to let Jews create their state on both banks of Jordan River. Also Zhabotinskiy required organization of Jewish armed units and gain of Jewish majority in Palestine. So, Revisionists were the most radical Zionists and were ready to use any methods to gain their wished result - creating the state Israel.

Religious Zionism is a particular orientation, which had an aim of uniting all Jews using their common religion in order to help them start independent life on their own land. This orientation was established in 1904 when religious leaders gathered during the first Congress and proclaimed the program, which announced that Israeli lands may belong only to Jews. Also creation of national religious education is a result of Jewish religious leaders' activities. Even now Religious Zionists' participation in modern Israel's politics is really important and they have an influence over all political decisions.

Spiritual Zionism can be considered as cultural Zionism, which proclaimed all problems of Jewish nation to be the results of their losses in spiritual sphere, culture. As Ginsberg thought, the main condition of development of Jewish nation was development of their unique culture, traditions, preservation it from assimilation. He was sure that Jewish State was not able to solve all problems, as it was not able to help all Jews. So, the main way out of this situation was creation of a national cultural center, which could unite all Jews: both in Israel and Diaspora.

But still there exist misunderstanding between religious Jewish leaders and supporter of Zionism, as most of Zionist principles contradict holly scriptures. As Zionists proclaim unity of Jews on the base of ethnic heritage and religious origins of Judaism, the fact that Zionist ideology contradicts religious concepts of Judaism, puts it on the same place with chauvinistic and nationalist ideologies and describes them as oppressors even by respected rabbis. Torah and Talmud, fundamental religious scriptures of Judaism are against Zionism. In the prayer "Mussaf" it says: "because of our sins we were exiled from our country and set apart from our land." One of the main principles of Judaism says that the history of Jewish nation is not a result of random coincidence of circumstances, but the outcomes of the sins of Jews. So it's understood, as Torah says, that only repentance can free Jews from exile. it's stated in Talmud that God ordered Jews: not to rebel against other nations, not to resettle to Israel widely and not to approach the time of deliverance. Jewish rabbis who accept these concepts also bring to evidence well-known facts from Israeli history: sons of Ephraim, who tried to escape from Egypt before the time, perished; those who rebelled against Rome failed and were executed as well. They say, that conflicts in modern Israel are the execution of the prophecies. it's an important fact and it had to be mentioned in order to give a full picture of tendencies under which the Jewish state was established.

So, as we can see Zionists were not united but they all worked to create their common state - Israel that united their hearts because creation of a new state was a very hard work, which could not be fulfilled without cooperation.

Jewish people fought for their right to have own state and their struggle was extremely tragic: no other nation in the world had never suffered as much as Jews did. We have to remember that Jewish population in pre-revolutionary Russia didn't have the same rights Russians had. After revolution in this country (where the most numerous Jewish population lived) Poland (another homeland for millions of Jews) became an independent state and situation improved. Russian Jews also improved their situation during V. Lenin's regime but Lenin was Marx's follower and could not respect Zionism because it.".. was not difficult to fit into it the concept of Zionism as a form of colonialism and the Zionist state as an outpost of imperialism"

Ravitzky, Aviezer Messianism, Zionism and Jewish religious radicalism p.197).

Later, when Soviet leader died a bloody struggle for power began. Lev Trotsky and Joseph Stalin fought for the Kremlin office and as we know Jew Trotsky had to leave Russia and was murdered by Stalin's agent in Mexico. Another era began in Soviet Union: Stalin famous for his anti-Semitic point-of-view oppressed… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Effects of Zionism on the Peace Process Between Israel and the Palestinians.  (2004, November 30).  Retrieved May 21, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/effects-zionism-peace-process-israel/126786

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