Research Paper: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Period

Pages: 4 (1563 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Topic: Art  (general)  ·  Buy This Paper

Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, artists were concentrating on a number of objectives in being able to effectively express their ideas. This is based upon utilizing techniques from the past and incorporating them with new ideas in the future. To fully understand how these ideas are incorporated requires examining different works from the period. This will be accomplished by focusing on: Peaceable Kingdom, View from Mount Holyoke, Kindred Spirits, The Veteran in a New Field and John Biglin in a Single Scull. Together, these paintings will highlight the overall influences of the various artists.

Peaceable Kingdom, Edward Hicks, 1830, Internet http://www2.gol.com/users/quakers/Hicks_Peaceable_Kingdom.htm (Broastoski)

The iconography is showing a cow, lion, a leopard and angels inside the Garden of Eden. This is represented in the foreground. In the background is a picture of Americans who are talking with the Indians. These are symbolic representations of God approving of events that occurred in American history. The materials that were used to make the work were a traditional paint brush and various colors. The most notable include: brown, beige, tan and green. It was constructed based upon the views of Hicks using his imagination and opinions of the world around him. (Broastoski)

The formal elements are illustrating how he took a conservative approach when constructing this painting. This occurred through creating lines that were parallel to each other. The colors were darker which were contrasted with lighter tones. The spacing was larger images in the forefront with smaller views in the background. The lighting is darker in the foreground and it becomes much brighter as it moves towards the backdrop. The texture is of a smooth surface which is combined with rough edges at contrasting points. The patterns are showing larger images at the foreground and then becoming smaller as the painting moves away from them. These elements are used to show an emphasis on religious theology in contrast with historical and contemporary events at the time. The balance, scale / proportion, repetition / rhythm, unity and variety are all concentrating on meeting these larger objectives. Hicks used a traditional paint brush and canvas to construct the work. It was created using previous views of the Garden of Eden and his beliefs of what happened at different events. This is revealing support of various ideas in American history. Yet, it is also highlighting a criticism of society by demonstrating how Quakers are becoming overly influenced from the world around them. (Broastoski)

View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm the Oxbow, Thomas Cole, 1836, Internet http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/08.228 ("View from Mount Holyoke")

The image is a picture of Mount Holyoke looking down at a river valley. It is a picturesque view of American landscape. This is a representation of the lack of appreciation for the natural beauty inside many areas. He used sketchbook drawings and annotations that are copied from other artists. There are dark colors in the foreground and lighter ones in the backdrop. The spacing / texture / pattern are used to show larger images in the forefront and smaller views of valley in the background. This follows a similar format for the spacing by illustrating contrasting views close up with smaller images further away. In this case, the principles of design that are most evident include: balance, scale, proportion, unity and variety. This is illustrated through showing how Cole wants to depict the actual scenery from the viewpoint of someone who is looking down at the river valley (as it appeared during his time). ("View from Mount Holyoke")

These elements are utilized to highlight the beauty of nature from a more neutral perspective. In this aspect, he is capturing the American landscape before the country went through rapid periods of expansion and industrialization. From a political and historical perspective, these insights are demonstrating something that is lost with the changes occurring from technological advancements. Socially, it is revealing how society is losing itself and their values because of these transformations. ("View from Mount Holyoke")

Kindred Spirits, Asher B. Durand, 1849, Internet, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/L.2008.21 ("Kindred Spirits")

The image is of two individuals who are standing on ledge overlooking the Hudson River in upstate New York. It is a representation of the beauty of nature and its lasting effects on Durand. To complete the work the artist used a canvas, natural colors and a paint brush. It was constructed based on images he observed. The line, space and texture are of rugged edges that exist in the setting. The utilization of light colors is highlighting the natural setting of the sun and dark ones are used to contrast images of the shade. This establishes a sense of balance, scale, proportion, unity and variety. At the same time, there is a sense of rhythm based upon the natural images and how they are interacting with each other. ("Kindred Spirits")

These elements are placed into context to illustrate how these images existed in 1849. This is providing a greater historical and ideological view by demonstrating the way nature must be protected. At the same time, the work is underscoring how economics and political changes are being lost from the rapid industrialization of the country. From a social perspective, this is telling everyone that they must be aware of these changes and ensure that these views are continually protected. Otherwise, there is a possibility that future generations will lose something which cannot be appreciated and admired. ("Kindred Spirits")

The Veteran in a New Field, Winslow Homer, 1865, Internet http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/67.187.131 ("The Veteran in a New Field")

This is showing a farmer who is working in field after the end of the Civil War. It is identifying the changes that took place at the time, with more people being forced to return to their former lives (despite the transformations that are occurring). The basic materials that were used include: a paint brush and canvas. The artist created this portrait by watching and observing what was happening to everyone. The line, texture and patterns are illustrating a natural setting with the farmer returning to his former occupation. To highlight these images lighter colors of blue, yellow and brown are utilized. The spacing is showing a sense of closeness with the farmer being one with the gain and continually working with it. This creates balance, proportion, scale, rhythm and unity. There is a lack of variety by showing this person performing the same kind of tasks over and over again. ("The Veteran in a New Field")

At the same time, the work is highlighting the historical perspectives by illustrating what life was like immediately after the end of the Civil War. Politically, it is showing the dark Union jacket and tool the farmer is using. This is demonstrating the sense of carnage that occurred from these events. Economically and ideologically, it is illustrating how these transformations are occurring with nation becoming more industrialized. While at the same time, it is highlighting how these changes are creating shifts in society with most people being forced to make these adjustments over the long-term. Socially, this is showing a sense of loss from the war and Lincoln's death in the same year. ("The Veteran in a New Field")

John Biglin in a Single Scull, Thomas Eakins, 1873, Internet http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/24.108 ("John Biglin in a Small Skull")

The image in this painting is showing an individual who is rowing boat on the water. This is a representation of one of the many activities people in the Northeastern United States will perform competitively (i.e. rowing). The basic materials that were used in the process include: a canvas, paint brush and natural colors. It was constructed based upon Eakins observations of everyday activities that someone is involved in. The line, texture and space are showing the subject in a larger context. While the background, is represented in much smaller contrast.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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