Research Paper: Emergency Management (Mitigation) Policy Analysis

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[. . .] President Carter is reported to have "transmitted to the Congress, the Reorganization Plan Number 3 (3 CFR 1978, 5 U.S. Code 903). The stated and achieved intent of this plan was to consolidate emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response activities into one federal emergency management organization. The President proclaimed that the plan would provide for the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and that the FEMA Director would report directly to the President." (Haddow, 2006) This was passed on June 19, 1978. It is reported that Reorganization Plan No.3 "transferred the following agencies or functions to FEMA: National Fire Prevention Control Administration (Department of Commerce); Federal Insurance Administration (HUD); Federal Broadcast System (Executive Office of the President); Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD); Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (HUD); and the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)." (Haddow, 2006) Also transferred to FEMA were "Oversight of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (Office of Science and Technology Policy); coordination of dam safety (Office of Science and Technology Policy); assistance to communities in the development of readiness plans for severe weather related emergencies; coordination of natural and nuclear disaster warning systems; and coordination of preparedness and planning to reduce the consequences of major terrorist incidents." (Haddow, 2006) During the 1980s, President Reagan appointed General Louis O. Guiffrida as Director of FEMA. FEMA was reorganized. General Julius Becton was reported as FEMA Director by President Reagan and is reported to have restored integrity to FEMA operations. During Reagan's presidency, Congress passed the Steward McKinney-Robert Stratford ACT. In 1992, several Hurricanes in Florida and Louisiana example the unprepared state of FEMA. FEMA was further shown as unprepared during the 1990s. Hurricane Mitch resulted in a change in foreign policy in the U.S. toward promotion of community-based mitigation projects. By the year 2001, the primary focus of emergency management became that of terrorism.

Summary and Conclusion

As this work has demonstrated emergency management changes in the U.S. followed the occurrence of natural disaster events and policy changes that occurred were administration dependent.


Bea, Keith (2007) Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions 6 Mar 2007. Retrieved from:

Chapter One Introduction to Emergency Management (nd) Retrieved from:

Civil Defense and Homeland Security: A Short History of National Preparedness Efforts (2006) Homeland Security Preparedness Task Force. September 2006. Retrieved from:

Haddow, George (2006) The Historical Context of Emergency Management. Retrieved from: [END OF PREVIEW]

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Emergency Management (Mitigation) Policy Analysis.  (2012, March 16).  Retrieved September 16, 2019, from

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"Emergency Management (Mitigation) Policy Analysis."  March 16, 2012.  Accessed September 16, 2019.