Emotional Intelligence Its Relevance to Urban Community Association ManagersResearch Proposal

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Emotional Intelligence: Relevance to Urban Community Association Managers

Daniel Goleman published "Emotional Intelligence" in 1995. It was in this book that the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) was first mentioned and comprehensively discussed as a behavioral model. Emotional intelligence theory was developed by psychologists; John Mayer, Peter Salovey and Howard Gardner. The principles of emotional intelligence provide a new way of comprehending and assessing people's management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, behavior and potential, which is why it is more relevant to development and organization of people. EQ is also important in job profiling, human resources planning, customer relations, management development, customer services, selection and interviewing. Certain concepts like spirituality and love are strongly linked to EQ. This means that those with emotional intelligence also have the ability to make workplaces more human and compassionate (Emotional Intelligence theory, 2016). Therefore, emotional competencies are job skills that are essential to learn. Even though our EQ shows our learning potential for certain on job skills, it is emotional competence that determines that potential (Goleman).

EI for Workplace and Social Success

Emotional Intelligence is described in 4 unique mental abilities according to the Mayer and Salovey model of emotional intelligence (MSCEIT). The 4 include:

(i) Emotional Perception

(ii) Emotional thought facilitating

(iii) Emotional Understanding

(iv) Emotional Management

It is of great importance to acknowledge the fact that these four inter-connected abilities are arranged hierarchically such that advanced psychological processes e.g. conscious, are on top while more basic psychological processes, e.g. perceiving emotions are at the base or foundation of the model. Empirical evidences have not yet been found to justify whether the high level capabilities depend on lower level capabilities. In this model, focusing on important information is recommended since the abilities determine how people use emotions to enable emotion regulation or thinking. EI is also thought to be slightly linked with other intelligences such as verbal-propositional intelligence.

The degree of cognitive effort used to solve problems and performance on emotion-laden behavioral problems in particular is related to the MSCEIT scores. In one particular study, those who were found with higher MSCEIT scores were found to have utilized lesser effort (cognitively) in solving such behavioral problems. Another study found that people with higher MSCEIT scores were able to quickly resolve social problems compared to their counterparts who had lower MSCEIT scores (Brackett, Susan E. Rivers, & Peter Salovey, 2011).

Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)

The majority of the skills defined by legislators and business leaders as critical for individuals to be effective in the workplace -- e.g. persistence in the face of challenges; ability to analyze and come up with solutions; working with people from different backgrounds; and to work as a team -- are emotional and social competencies. Many people in education departments are considering the introduction of SEL along with other important reforms into the education sector. SEL has been referred to as the missing element in education reforms. The emergence of SEL and the increasing calls for its introduction into school curriculums shows the increasing acknowledgment of the importance of healthy emotional and social development to students' success, both in school and their day-to-day lives. The clamor for introduction of social and emotional learning in schools was brought about by the increase in studies that have shown that it can help students to not only be academically competent, but also to be active, caring and self-aware learners who can help build a more productive and peaceful world. Studies done on social and emotional learning programs among school-going children from different backgrounds, found the SEL programs to be effective. According to Lantieri (2009), SEL is one of the most researched topics among all recent educational reforms tested out in the last 10 years. The impact of these studies has been significant.

Outcomes of EI Among Urban School Students

The main drive of motivation is emotion. As humans, we have different stages of emotional development. The first stage is that of adolescence that involves rapid and intensive growth and development of the child's physical, social, cognitive, and emotional aspects of their character. This stage is characterized by full blown emotions. These changes begin between eleven and twelve years. Teachers and parents are quite mindful about empowering the cognitive side of children. However, both parties ought to put in more effort towards developing children's affective and cognitive skills since these would in turn help develop emotional intelligence. This is because emotional intelligence is essential for the growth of a balanced personality and for the preparation of children for the challenges that will face them as they grow up. Thus, it can be said that emotional intelligence plays a great role in equipping children to face challenges and to later become successful in life. Parents and teachers should therefore; both take a more active role in helping students become more emotionally intelligent by developing in them conflict resolution skills and other practical cognitive and affective skills.

Influence of Emotional Intelligence in Hospitality and Real Estate Sector

To improve customer satisfaction, client-employee relations and other kinds of on-job skills, employees in the hospitality industry are taught about emotional intelligence topics such as: emotional awareness; conditions for satisfaction; and six seconds pause to manage reactions. Most lessons stress on the value and importance of emotions both for the employees and for their interactions with clients. According to Freedman (2011), one of the best themes for training hospitality employees on EQ would be "Quality always comes from the inside." This is based on the notion that how we interact with people (guests in this case) on the outside, is determined by how we feel on the inside.

Training on EQ is one of the best ways of enhancing employees' conscientiousness in all service organizations including the hospitality industry. Increase in emotional intelligence or awareness about emotions would help employees: to have enhanced competence; to be more organized; and to have more self-regulation (ONYOKOKO & EKETU, 2016). Increased competence in turn enhances the chances of one being successful in any workplace. When seeking clients in the real estate sector or showing them properties, proper use of emotional intellgence could help a real estate employee to quickly read what his or her clients needs and to meet those needs more effectively. Through appreciating the need for emotional intelligence among realtors and providing realtors with the right training mortgage and real estate companies can achieve increased revenues and profits and enhanced levels of client satisfaction (Swanson & Zobisch, 2014).

Socio - Demographical and Environmental Factors

A study conducted by Harrod and Scheer (as cited by Kanhai 2014), on two hundred adolescents between sixteen and nineteen years, found that there was a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and the parents' education level and their household income. The two researchers also found a significant difference between female and male emotional intelligence levels. The boys were found to have lower levels of emotional intelligence than their female counterparts. However, this groundbreaking study did not reveal the link between emotional intelligence and background / age. The model used in the study shows that there was an 18% overall variance in emotional intelligence. Another study reported lower emotional intelligence among students in urban areas compared to their counterparts from rural areas. This study also revealed that female students have a significantly higher level of emotional intelligence than male students. Other researchers, Awasthi and Katyal found that females had only slightly higher levels of emotional intelligence. In another study by the same two researchers, it was found that emotional intelligence was closely related to a mother's occupation, parents' educational levels, and type of family; and that there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and father's occupation, birth order and family's monthly income.

Guideline for EI Intervention

Qualter and Gardner (2007), proposed several models / guidelines for the development, execution and assessment of programs aiming to improve emotional intelligence among school-going children. There programs included: the preparation of teachers to execute EQ programs; the need to make sure that all taught EQ skills were transferable to real-life scenarios; Integration of EQ programs into school syllabuses; and the needs to determine the context under which the new EQ programs would be implemented. Whereas most of these guidelines are totally unquestionable, whether an intervention-based or EI curriculum on an ability or trait, conceptualization of EI is actually the best way forward. It is an issue which remains to be tackled through scientific intervention. Teachers, however, are not likely to wait for the scientific communities to complete their studies as they will want to initiate programs into schools with hopes that they may have some valuable outcomes. It is all up to the researchers in psychology and education to ensure that such programs actually become part of the scientific research by ensuring that the interventions are thoroughly assessed, with regards to the various EI models.

Protection from Suicidal Behavior

How emotions are experienced and their specific effect on behaviors and thoughts is now the focus of raising interest and research… [END OF PREVIEW]

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