Emotional Labor Term Paper

Pages: 13 (3946 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Business

Emotional Labor

Annotated Bibliography

Alderman, P.K. (1995). Emotional labor as a potential source of job stress: Organizational risk factors for job stress. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

There are a lot of different risk factors that can affect workers when it comes to job stress in an organization. One of these is emotional labor. Alderman addresses this issue, looking at how emotionally invested people can become in their jobs and how much it affects not only the work that they do, but how they perceive the rest of their lives. Whether the emotional labor that is put into a job carries over in reduced emotional need-meeting during the rest of a person's time is a significant concern and question. Naturally, everyone is different, but Alderman is interested in the 'average' worker and whether emotional labor plays a role in the job stress that he or she feels. If emotional labor is an issue for job stress, ways to lessen the effects can be sought.

Beck, R. (2004). The high cost of cheap foreign labor: The debate in the United States in immigration. Hover Institution Press, 78, 145-167.

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Foreign labor has become very popular today, as Beck rightly points out. Many companies are sending their work overseas because they can pay pennies on the dollar in countries where labor is inexpensive. They feel that they are getting a great deal that way. They can keep prices low so that a lot of customers buy their products, and they can also make a lot of profits, both from high sales volume and low production costs. There is another cost, though, and this is the cost to the job market and the economy within the United States. Not everyone thinks about the issue in that kind of context, but a better understanding of what kind of costs are really associated with foreign labor are presented by Beck in this article.

Berman, J.M. (2004). Industry output and employment projections to 2012: Employees in the dominant service-providing sector is expected to grow at a slower pace than in the 1992-2002 period. Monthly Labor Review, 127(2), 58+. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from Questia database.

Term Paper on Emotional Labor Assignment

Service jobs are some of the most important jobs out there, but there have been recent concerns that their growth is slowing down. This is, of course, a serious concern for people who are in these jobs now and for people who are going to be graduating college and moving into these jobs. Berman takes a look at the various projections for employment between the date of the study and 2012, in order to give others food for thought about the industry that they are in or considering, and whether job seekers, job holders, and businesses might want to make some changes to avoid the potential up-and-coming problems.

Bitzer, E. (2006, May). Strategies for cutting turnover. Security Management, 50, 88+. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from Questia database.

The turnover in businesses is a necessary evil, but when it gets out of hand it can cost a company a lot of money. Naturally, companies are looking to avoid this, and Bitzer addresses ways that this can be accomplished, so that businesses can have higher profit margins, fewer employees that stay only a few months before leaving, and a better general atmosphere. While the nature of the business will somewhat affect what kind of strategy can be most easily addressed by a company, there are many opportunities to stop employees from leaving without breaking the bank or without making unreasonable concessions to each employee that indicates a willingness to leave and look for greener pastures elsewhere. By studying what companies do right, Bitzer can help other companies see what they are doing wrong.

Briner, R.B. (2004). Emotion and originations: A decade of development. Human Relations, 57, 1333-1362.

How businesses and organizations evolve over the course of time is particularly significant when addressing where they are now and where they will be headed in the future. Not everything about the future can be learned from the past, but there are many trends that can be spotted. Whether these are good or bad, being aware of them is one of the keys to being a good manager. Emotion does play a strong role, as well, in how a company comes about and how it develops, as Briner points out. The way that a person feels about what he or she does can have a strong and lasting effect on the performance, not only of that person, but of the organization as a whole. The emotion must be separated as much as possible when making business decisions, however, to ensure that the right choices for the company and the business environment are made.

Daniels, K., Harris, C., & Beiner, R.B. (2004, December). Linking working conditions to unpleasant affect: Cognition, categorization and goal. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 343.

The conditions that a person works in and how that affects their work performance and other issues is the subject that Daniels, Harris, and Beiner chose to address. Other studies of this nature have been performed in the past, but none that study goals, cognition, and categorization in the same way as they are looked at here by the authors. This is an important area of study, however, because the working conditions that many people have do not seem to be improving today. Top-level individuals have very good working conditions, but most of the people who make this country operate work in conditions that are less than optimal. The increase in production that would likely be seen from better working conditions is certainly worthy of further examination.

Drucker, P.F. (1994). The age of social transformation. Harvard Business Review, 67(3), 47-52. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from Questa database.

It is no secret that Drucker often writes on and thoroughly addresses social issues. He has been concerned for some time with the way that social transformation works and how it is taking place today. The business world and the social world are blending in many ways with the globalization of society and the advent of the Internet-business world. People use social media sites on the Internet for business advertising, too, and they use their business Web sites' blog areas to talk about their personal lives - at least to some extent. Drucker foresaw that things were moving in this direction back in the mid-1990s, when most of it was still unheard of. It has changed both business and the rest of society in a way that had not been seen before.

Druskat, V.U., Sala, F., & Mount, G. (Eds.). (2006). Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from Questia database.

The subject of emotional intelligence is one that most people know very little about. They understand about 'standard' intelligence testing, but that is usually the limit of their knowledge on or concern about the issue. Druskat, Sala, and Mount, however, placed their focus on the emotional intelligence that people have, and how that affects their working lives. People who are not emotionally mature often struggle with work, because they are usually not disciplined and they can be unorganized. Even in a job where they have a lot of structure, these people can flounder, and they can bring other down with them if they must work closely or as a team. Seeing as this is a real concern for many businesses, addressing it is a vital issue in today's business society.

Glomb, T., Kammeyer-Mueller, J., & Rotundo, M. (2004). Emotional labor and compensating wage differentials. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 700-714.

Emotional labor is becoming more and more important in business settings. In the past, it was not thought about very much, but the term is becoming more common as people are realizing that there is a lot more to work than the physical or mental stresses that are involved. People become emotionally involved in their work as well - some people more than others, and more in some specific fields of work. It is important, Glomb, Kammeyer-Mueller, and Rotundo point out, that employers understand that individuals are just that - individual. Each person has his or her needs, goals, and wants. Those who are deeply emotionally invested might work for less money. On the other hand, those who are emotionally drained by their job often want to be paid more. It is a dilemma that many employers face and often are not sure how to address.

Grandey, a. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95-110.

With emotional labor being such a hot topic, it is important to have a better understanding about the workplace and how it operates on an emotional level. Emotions were long thought to be left at home, but they do really play a strong role in a person's work life as well, and because of that it is… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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