Term Paper: Empirical Study on Business Ethics Development of International Trade Personnel in Taiwanese Industries

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¶ … Business Ethics Development of International Trade Personnel in Taiwanese Industries

Criteria for Coding Data

The survey data that is analyzed in this chapter relied on the Likert scaling methodology for defining forced choice to attitudinal questions. A total of 28 variables are included in the analysis, with two being demographic, the age and gender of the respondent. The attendance in an ethics training course is measured from the standpoint of having completed training in the last five years or not. Twelve additional variables are also used to ascertain the respondents' level of ethics judgement in response to a hypothetical case regarding an illegal liver transplant. The remaining thirteen questions comprise the Ethical Climate Questionnaire as is shown in the Appendices of this study.

The intent of the Likert Scale is to accentuate the differences between each ethical position on the attitudinal variables included in the questionnaire.

The intent of this analysis is to test the survey results for statistical significance relative to the eight hypotheses that form the foundation of this study. The demographics of the survey population are first discussed, in addition to an analysis of the percentage of respondents that have completed Business Ethics training in the past five years. By first looking at these factors, a set of assumptions can be made regarding the acceptance or rejection of each hypothesis; namely how conversant and educated this respondent base was in the first place relative to ethical judgements and issue resolution.

Respondent Demographics

Of the respondent population of 299 interviews, the majority are male (58.5%) versus 41.5% who are female, and the majority have had ethics training within the last five years (52.8%). 80.3% of respondents are 40 years old or below, with 37.8% being 30 yrs or younger, and 42.5% being between 31 and 40 years old. Frequency distributions were next computed in addition to cross-tabulations. To see how pervasive ethics training had specifically been in each of the respondent groups, a cross-tabulation of age of respondent by ethics training completed is shown in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1: Crosstabulation of Age by Ethics Training

What specifically is shown in this analysis is that the majority of respondent age groups have had ethics training in the last five years with the exception of those 30 years old or below. This indicates many organizations are completing ethics training on their own, especially given the face that the majority of interviewed respondents in the 41 to 50, and 51 years and older age categories had received ethics training in the last five years. From this short analysis of demographics and ethics training the assumption is made that organizations are periodically completing ethics training on their own, continually updating the knowledge of employees in this area.

Hypothesis One

The first hypothesis looks to prove or disprove the hypothesis that business ethics vary significantly by age levels in Taiwan. The following Null and Alterative Hypotheses are defined as follows:

H0: There are no differences in the business ethics level of ITP's in Taiwan with respect to different age levels.

H1: There are differences in the business ethics level of ITP's in Taiwan with respect to different age levels.

Results of Testing Hypothesis One

Using both t-tests of statistical significance between means and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) both with unclustered and clustered representation of the Age variable, the results showed no statistically significant differences in business ethics level of ITPs in Taiwan at both the 95% and 99% Confidence Interval. Given the demographics and level of ethics training by age group, this is not surprising. It is important to note that the only factor that emerged from the ANVA even close to a statistically significant level was from the Hypothetical Story, on the factor of the parents seeking out another hospital and doctor with perfect facilities and excellent skills. This does not imply a lack of ethics on the part of respondents, yet in aggregate across all age groups, this strategy was ethically the most prevalent chosen. On the ECQ, there was, in aggregate, a lack of statistical significance showing variations in ethical judgment across all age groups.

Hypothesis Two

The second hypothesis of this research effort looks to accept or refute the role of gender regarding the ethics of ITPs in Taiwan. The following Null and Alterative Hypotheses are defined as follows:

H0: There are no differences in the business ethics level of ITP's in Taiwan with respect to different genders.

H1: There are differences in the business ethics level of ITP's in Taiwan with respect to different genders.

Results of Testing Hypothesis Two

Using both t-tests of statistical significance between means and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of across twenty five of the attitudinal variables used to measure stated adherence to ethical standards, no statistically significant differences between genders were found, so therefore the Null Hypothesis can be accepted. There is no statistically difference at both the 95% and 99% Confidence Intervals (CI).

In completing this analysis through two-tailed t-tests for statistical significance, ANOVA, and analysis of means across each of the twenty five attitudinal variables measuring ethics by respondents' gender, a specific question from the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ) to fully follow the company policies and procedures is seen as the key element for a successful employee in this company, showed very high levels of statistical differences between respondents by gender however. From the comparison of means, males tended to be more concerned with compliance to organizations' policies and procedures than women.

Hypothesis Three

In evaluating the ethical judgement and maturing of those respondents who have taken ethics courses vs. those than have not, the following two hypotheses have been derived. From the demographic analysis completed earlier in this chapter, it became apparent that many organizations are completed ethics training for their mid-level and senior-level employees on a periodic basis, as the majority of each age segment had successfully completed ethics training, with the exception of those respondents below 30 who may not have completed their degrees yet. The two hypotheses to test the effects of ethics education are as follows:

H0: There are no differences in the business level of ITP's in Taiwan whether they have completed ethics education or not.

H1: There are differences in the business level of ITP's in Taiwan whether they have completed ethics education or not.

Results of Testing Hypothesis Three

Using both t-tests of statistical significance between means and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of across twenty five of the attitudinal variables used to measure stated adherence to ethical standards, no statistically significant differences between the trained and non-trained Taiwanese ITP. While there is no significant statistical difference between those trained and not trained relative to their ethical decision making, two variables illustrate the extent of differences in ethical thinking. From the story, the variable Will this surgery be understood and accepted by the public in view of the respect for life and humanity? generated a higher value for those who had been through ethics training relative to those that had not. In addition, the variable, in this company, every employee is concerned about their own interests and this is their primary concern also was higher for those who had been through ethics training. The conclusion can be drawn that those who have been through ethics training are more sensitized to ethical dilemmas see them in their immediate environment when someone not trained may not have seen them, and also takes a balanced view of life vs. law (as is exhibited by the results of the test story in the questionnaire).

Hypothesis Four

The fourth hypothesis concentrates on the relationship of the ethical climate of independence relative to the level of ethics that Taiwanese ITPs exhibit as recorded in the survey results. The ethical climate of independence refers to the level of autonomy employees have in defining their own levels of ethical decision making. The Null and Alternative Hypotheses of this fourth hypothesis are as follows:

H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.

H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.

Results of Testing Hypothesis Four

As each of the variables recorded in the ECQ are scale-based and can therefore be used in both parametric and nonparametric correlations, all thirteen values of the ECQ were included in the correlation analysis. The two specific statements on the ECQ, in this company, personal ethics and personal judgment are primary concerns and in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment produced a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of.682 at the.01 level of confidence, relying on a two-tailed test. From this correlation and the strength of correlation across the factors in the ECQ that measure the encouragement respondents receive from their organizations to make ethical decisions on their own, the Alternative Hypothesis (H0) is accepted. From a correlation analysis of the results, the greater the ethical climate of independence the higher the business ethics. it's clear that… [END OF PREVIEW]

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