Research Paper: Environmental Issues and Risk Management

Pages: 31 (7894 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 30  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Transportation - Environmental Issues  ·  Buy for $19.77

Environmental Issues and Risk Management

Can the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage facilities survive tornadoes at their current protection levels?

Definition of Construction Waste

Construction Waste Generation

Composition of Construction Waste

Motivation

Development of the Research Project

Brief Description of the Research Methodology

Deliverables

Sustainable Development and Construction Waste Management

Sustainability

Sustainable Construction

Construction Waste Management

Waste Management Hierarchy

The increased interest in the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage and rather or not they can survive natural disasters is the recent movement have forced many construction practices to change considerably. Construction waste management, which is one of the most vital respects in all sustainability review systems, also plays a vital role in green building ratings. Current revelations verify that straightforwardly utilizing on-site waste management programs does not provide sustainability when it comes to facility storage of waste and rather or not they can withstand pressure from disasters; as an alternative, waste management curriculums have to be successfully managed and planned to attain sustainability goals.

This investigation interjects to the construction management body of information by emerging a designing tool that is encompassed of two main constituents that guide the waste management decision making development: a) the appraisal of costs/benefits of waste management strategies for better attainability during storms particularly tornadoes (recycling, reuse, and landfill disposal); and, (b)the modeling of construction waste production;

Modelling of construction waste generation is based on the novel concept of the activity-based waste generation principle, which allows the documentation of each activity's contribution to the total waste generation on-site and rather or not the hazardous/waste facilities can endure through tough times. In this project personal observations and data collections at different construction projects, followed by a series of discussions and interviews with industry professionals, were working to acquire an empirical method to forecast construction waste generation that will have secure facilities in a wake of a natural disaster. A statistical model to predict waste generation from the drywall construction activity will be developed in utilizing the empirical approach.

A computer simulation model will be acquired that reports for the dynamic and random nature of construction activities that motivate every construction project. The benefits and cost of the obtainable waste management alternatives to building construction projects have been incorporated and modeled into the simulation model, thereby delivering various analyses for use in decision making of what should be used in order too see what storage facilities need to be used in provin. The integrated planning tool, which incorporates both the simulation model and project activity schedules, provides an opportunity for construction industry professionals to directly benefit from this application.

The presented approach to strategic planning and management of on-site waste management programs and the subsequent implementation of this planning tool in industry will ensure effective planning of waste management and improved sustainability.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Situation Analysis

Even though the residents of Joplin Missouri have confront a gigantic cleanup following the tornado that savaged Joplin, experts say environmental dangers as far as the hazardous material/waste contamination. Months later, experts say that it could lurk amid the mountains of debris in the southwestern Missouri city and even in the water and air. It is clear that hazardous waste and its proper disposal are becoming a major sociological problem today owed to its ability of contaminating the area in which people live and its capability to be deadly to all living things. Sequentially for the United States and other parts of the world to save itself from a potentially life frightening issue they must fix the causes which lead to the improper or weak storage of hazardous wastes and like materials when it comes to natural disaster like tornadoes. Certain details that hazardous waste has become a problem in Missouri and other parts of the today is because of the breakdown in implementing laws for the proper disposal of certain wastes, a lack of inventiveness on big companies behalf to getting out there in order to spend money on appropriate disposal and storage of the materials, and the ease of getting rid of such wastes illegally. As a society, the miscalculations of the past should not be repeated, for hazardous waste can be contained properly using methods that avert damage to the environment and human health. A lot of these methods have been abandoned in the past mainly since they have a higher price than undifferentiating or careless dumping, and because no law required their use (Kiefer, 1981, p.51).

Background

The difficulty of hazardous waste today basically shoots from the development of the United States business after World War II. Nevertheless, "with the benefits, unescapably, come hazardous wastes (Kiefer, 1981, p.9). Hazardous wastes are the consequences of everyday industry, fluctuating from heavy metals like mercury, lead, copper to more chemicals that are dangerous that includes things like acids, cyanide, and synthetic organic compounds. "The EPA has recognized four features that may be used to regulate whether or not a waste should be categorized as dangerous: Corrosivity, Ignitability, Toxicity and Ractivity, "(Block, 1985, p.44). The majority of these materials and many more are hazardous to wildlife and humans if they are not correctly arranged.

In 1976 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was placed into outcome by the Environmental Protection Agency. This policy does require "that hazardous waste be regulated from the time it is produced managed to its ultimate disposal -- from "cradle-to-grave"(Kiefer, 1981,p.11). Nevertheless, "before RCRA went into outcome, about eighty percent of hazardous waste was gotten rid of by procedures that did not defend human health or the setting "(Kiefer, 1981, p.15). "In New Jersey alone 30% (120,000 gallons) of waste is disposed or treated of in 20 licensed New Jersey proficiencies. The outstanding eighty percent (280,000 gallons) goes to out-of-state facilities or is illegitimately unloaded in New Jersey"(Dodd, 1980).

One reason that is behind a lot of these methods was that before 1976 there had been no laws that had required companies to dispose or treat correctly the hazardous wastes that they created. In the capitalist country we live in these companies did not see any motivations to appropriately influencing of hazardous wastes. This would take coming up with new methods, creating new apparatus, and doing a lot of exploration that would in the end just cost these businesses millions of dollars. These type of companies had found it that it was much easier to get rid of these poisonous chemicals in the waterways or into the ground, thus washing their hands of the difficulty. Another technique was to hire out "midnight-haulers." These persons would try loading up their trucks with a lot of hazardous wastes and though driving and let it leak out onto the ground.

Another motive force that is behind the improper disposal of hazardous waste was the Mafia taking advantage of this after a natural disaster. "Organized crime regulated the concrete waste disposal industry across the major trade relations, the applicable Teamster locals, and the involvement of political associates "(Block, 1985, p.102). The Mafia has the capability to purchase public officials with comfort. This and their scare tactics led a lot of EPA officials to do nothing regarding illegal doings that were going on. "Imagine an EPA inspector or state controlling agent straining to deal with firms that are controlled by the members of the most influential crime organizations in the country"(Block, 1985, p.103).

All of these details led up to the unlawful dumping of toxic and/or hazardous wastes into the environment which was sometimes done after taking advantage of a natural disaster. " Maybe the most serious threat to the environment that is caused by unreliable waste disposal practices has been the threatened and actual pollution of groundwater"(Block, 1985, p.51). It is true that well over 150 million Americans are depending on groundwater for their normal lives. The difficulty with this is that right when the groundwater is unclean or contaminated, recuperation or better storage is almost impossible. "A recent government report exposed that public and private water supplies have been dirty in at least twenty-five unreasonable "(Block, 1985, p.51). These poisonous chemicals can accrue underground and stay in the same locations for drawn-out periods of time. These chemicals never breaking down or disappearing or from the sun's rays can perhaps " collect in aquifers for hundreds of thousands of years, throughout which time they may repeatedly spoil the groundwater that flows beyond the area"(Block, 1985, p.53).

One of the major issue that permits these prepares to go on is the letdown of enforcement. Government agencies like the EPA are specified the power to explore hazardous waste dumpers and unlawful landfills. Nevertheless, there are so few guidelines on the appropriate handling of toxic wastes that those dumping toxic waste have almost an open invite to linger their practices.

The enforcement record that was against toxic waste dumpers is not closely as strong as the enforcement record that was going on against bootlegers throughout Prohibition. . . . The failure of enforcement happensfor three reasons -- a controlling policy of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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