Dissertation: Environmental Tourism/Eco-tourism the Hotel Sector in Malaysia

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Environmental Tourism/eco-Tourism

The Hotel Sector in Malaysia

The work of Kasim (2007) entitled: "Environmentalism in the Hotel Sector: Evidence of Drivers and Barriers in Penang Malaysia" reports that the link between tourism businesses and their impact to the environmental are often hidden or veiled by the promotion of tourism as a 'soft' industry. It is this that perhaps best explains the reason that few studies of these driver and the associated barriers in the operation of a corporation with the environment in mind and most specifically in developing countries is often an earner of foreign exchange. Kasim's work claims to narrow the gaps and provides evidence of the specific drivers of Environmentalism in the hotel sector of Penang, Malaysia.

Through use of qualitative data gathered by interviewing, analyzing documents and personal observation Kasim (2007) states findings that indicate that in the absence of introducing more drivers with stronger incentives and failing to understand and address the underlying barriers and to instill a sense of responsibility about the environment in the hotel industry in Malaysia then environmental responsibility within this sector of business will be a challenging if not impossible task.

II. Resources and Barriers in Tourism Development

The work of Prokkola (2008) entitled "Resources and Barriers in Tourism Development: Cross-Border Cooperation, Regionalization and Destination Building at the Finnish-Swedish Border" states that in the nation-building initiative border regions have become assimilated with the national centers and the connections across borders have decreased and the result is that these regions are in a "rather peripheral and marginal position" in that "such state-centric, differential development has been challenged in many border regions, particularly in the area of the European Union, and there has been a shift towards cross-border partnership and cooperation, manifested in common tourism development strategies and the building of cross-border destinations." (Prokkola, 2008)

Prokkola's work examines the regional as well as the institutional framework that supports cross-border "...cooperation, networking and tourism development at the Finnish-Swedish border, which is one of the internal borders of the European Union." (Prokkola, 2008) the conclusions stated by Prokkola is that the "...relational distance created by the border and the dependence of cross-border tourism development on program funding causes hindrances, particularly when viewed from the perspective of sustainable development of the tourism industry in this northern region." (Prokkola, 2008)

III. Advice for Improving Buyer/Seller Relationships

Neil Abramson (2006) when interviewed in the work entitled: "Improve Your Relationship with American Buyers and Sellers" published in the Executive Edge Journal of SFU Business and Simon Fraser University states that "Canadians needs to value more strongly their buyer-seller relationships with Americans." This as well can be applied to the present study. Abramson (2006) goes on to state "While Canadians are concerned about their pricing and believe their sales will be hurt if their prices aren't the lowest possible, he says Americans are not as concerned about the lowest price as Canadians think. "Americans value the quality of the relationship more than the price," he says. "They put more stock on relationship quality than we do, even though it is important to us as well." (SFU Business, 2006) Also recommended by Abramson (2006) are the following: (1) show greater respect for their American buyers and emphasize a greater commitment to equality and fairness in the relationships; (2) establish shared long-term goals as the basis of the relationship; demonstrate commitment to these goals; ask for reciprocal commitment and seek to publicize this co-operation; (3) Build greater trust by getting to know American buyers on a personal as well as a business basis; (4) Find out what benefits the American buyers expect and then monitor to ensure these are achieved. Be flexible as needs change. Be more accommodating when disagreements arise; (5) Be aware of non-verbal communication. (Abramson, 2006) in all of these cases the Malaysian hotel sector may be applied.

IV. Ecotourism Opportunities in the Asia Pacific Region: Malaysia

The work of Dr. Junaida Lee Abdullah (2006) entitled: "Ecotourism Opportunities in the Asia Pacific Region: Malaysia" states that tourism performance in 2004 for Malaysia was 15.7 billion (USD7.8 billion and the average stay reported was 6 nights. In 2005 there were a reported 16.4 million foreign tourists with USD8.62 billion. Malaysia is stated to be "one of the World's Twelve Mega Diversity Countries" and to be home to more than 4,000 species of marine fishes; 4 species of marine turtles nest and habitats include mangrove forests, sea grass beds, coral reefs, mud flat and sandy beaches.

V. Species in Malaysia

The following is a list of the terrestrial species of Malaysia:

Mammals - 286 species, 27 endemic;

Birds - 736 species, 9 endemic;

Reptiles - 268 species, 68 endemic;

Amphibians - 158 species, 57 endemic;

Malaysia's Freshwater Habitats;

449 species of freshwater fishes;

Approximately 2 million hectares of peat swamp - home to the Sumatran rhino, Storm's stock and Proboscis monkey, among others. (Abdullah, 2006)

VI. Malaysia: Government Plan Adopted to Assist Federal and State Governments

It is reported that the Government of Malaysia has adopted a plan to assist the Federal and State Governments in the development of the eco-tourism potential. It serves as an:

(1) an appropriate instrument within the overall sustainable development of Malaysia and the economy as a whole; and (2) an effective tool for the conservation of the natural and cultural heritage of the country. (Abdulla, 2006)

Eco-Tourism is defined as "Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features, both past and present), that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations." (Abdullah, 2006)

Implementation of the plan is stated to be set out in the 3 main interactive components:

(1) action plans;

(2) site proposals; and (3) guidelines. (Abdullah, 2006)

Each of these are stated to be "...equally important and each is means to be implemented with specific reference to the other two." (Abdullah, 2006)

VII. Promotion of Tourism Objectives

The government of Malaysia states that promotion of ecotourism products objectives are to:

(1) increase awareness on eco-tourism products that has potential for promotion in international market areas;

(2) to assist in developing eco-tourism packages jointly with tour operators and other relevant agencies;

(3) to increase foreign tourists arrivals through the promotion of ecotourism products. (Abdullah, 2006)

VIII. Types of Ecotourism Products Promoted in Malaysia

The types of ecotourism products being promoted in Malaysia are stated to be the following: (2) rock climbing (Gua Musang, Kalantan); (2) jungle trekking (Mount Tahan, Mount Kinabalu); (3) white water rafting (Kiulu, Padas, Sabah); (4) wildlife sanctuary (elephant sanctuary Kuala Gandah); (5) national park (Taman Negara); and (5) homestay and agro-tourism (Banghuris, Selangor and Pelegong in Negeri Sembilan). (Abdullah, 2006)

IX. Challenges and Concerns for Promoting Ecotourism in Malaysia

Stated as challenges and concerns for promoting ecotourism in Malaysia are the following: (1) illegal logging; (2) low product knowledge (still very low among local tour operators and tourists guides); (2) inadequate nature guides; (4) program sustainability; (5) issues of maintenance, efforts to update, redesigned and package it to suit changing needs; (6) seasonal influences (haze, birdflu); (7) uncontrolled and excessive development resulting in overcrowding; (8) insufficient of inadequate tourism infrastructure and amenities support resulting in pollution and degradation of ecotourism sites; (9) development of ecotourism not properly planned according to the carrying capacity of the site; (10) the benefits of eco-tourism development on reaching the local communities; (11) the benefits of eco-tourism not properly planned according to the carrying capacity of the site; (12) the benefits of ecotourism are not reaching the local communities; (13) ecotourism sites are poorly managed due to a lack allocation for maintenance, inadequate man power as well as expertise in the management of ecotourism products/activities; and (14) Approval of development projects by state government and local authorities often contradicts the principles of sustainable development and do not consider ecotourism development as a viable option and better alternative. (Abdullah, 2006)

X. Future Prospects and Key Factors for Ecotourism in Malaysia

Abdullah states that the future prospects of ecotourism in Malaysia are very good and that there is a vast potential of the ecotourism industry in the Asia Pacific region. It is stated that there should be "further collaborations...to enhance the growth of eco-tourism...between the private sectors and the public sectors in their countries concerned." (Abdullah, 2006) Key factors are stated by Abdullah (2006) to include development of new products and enhancement of the marketing strategy. Furthermore, target markets and specialized market groups should be established who are "interested in birding, caving, diving, and plant enthusiasts. (Abdullah, 2006) in addition required are such as publicity through print and electronic media including a website and organization of a familiarization tour for travel agents, media and specialized groups. (Abdullah, 2006) Abdullah (2006) states that there is a need for joint participation in ecotourism travel fair in selected markets. (Abdullah, 2006)

X. Environmental Degradation Indirectly Caused by Tourists

The work of Kaur (2009) states that ecotourism "is… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Environmental Tourism/Eco-tourism the Hotel Sector in Malaysia.  (2009, October 18).  Retrieved May 21, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/environmental-tourism-eco-hotel/2902

MLA Format

"Environmental Tourism/Eco-tourism the Hotel Sector in Malaysia."  18 October 2009.  Web.  21 May 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/environmental-tourism-eco-hotel/2902>.

Chicago Format

"Environmental Tourism/Eco-tourism the Hotel Sector in Malaysia."  Essaytown.com.  October 18, 2009.  Accessed May 21, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/environmental-tourism-eco-hotel/2902.