Epl Understanding English Premier League Dissertation

Pages: 32 (11356 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 30  ·  Level: Doctoral  ·  Topic: Sports  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] From its outset, sports journalism has been criticized from both within and outside the journalism profession as often playing more of a promotional role than an informative role. The symbiotic relationship between media and the sports they cover has always been tenuous at best, with media attempting to uphold the tenets of objectivity and sports promoters attempting to gain as much attention as possible for their events. Without media coverage, sports promoters lose a key element to their promotions; without well-attended games to cover, sports journalists lose some of their justification for covering the events. Therefore, one of the most difficult roles played by the sports journalist is the role that toes the line between simply informing an audience and playing a promotional role for the sports events themselves. As Boyle (2006) summarized, "It is unsurprising when seen in its historical context that there has been a perennial struggle at the heart of sports journalism between the notions of journalistic rigor and the more uncritical promotion of sports, teams and individuals by newspapers" (p. 32).

John Fiske defines fandom as 'a common feature of popular culture that selects from the repertoire of mass-produced and mass-distributed entertainment and takes them into the culture of a self-selected fraction of people. (Fiske 1992: 30). He placed a great deal of emphasis not only on studying actual audience readings, but on studying the audience as 'active' in the construction of meaning. Fiske argues that fandom has three general characteristics. The first characteristic is that fans determine the boundaries between what falls within or outside of their fandom, thereby creating a line that clearly marks someone as a fan (Fiske 1992). It is argued that such investments in specific differences make fans divide the cultural world into 'Us' and 'Them' (Grossberg 1992). The second characteristic of fandom is that of productivity and participation. As Fiske notes,

"All popular audiences engage in varying degrees of semiotic productivity, producing meanings and pleasures that pertain to their social situation out of the products of the culture industries. But fans often turn this semiotic productivity into some form of textual production that can circulate among -- and thus help to define -- the fan community." (Fiske, 1992:30)

The third characteristic of fandom is that of capital accumulation. Here, fan cultural capital lies in the appreciation and knowledge of texts, performers and events, therefore making the accumulation of knowledge fundamental to the accumulation of capital (Fiske 1992).

Fandom has also been understood as an 'interpretive community'. Stemming from the work of literary theorist Stanley Fish, it suggests that different groups of readers -- drawing on different communal codes and conventions -- construct and interpret texts according to their community's reading conventions. This is particularly interesting in light of the local and community nature of sports.

Also interesting is John Tulloch's work which pays close attention to the issue of fandom not merely as a community but also as a social hierarchy. A common thought is that fandom is a social space without a pecking order, in which all fans are somehow equal. Where interpretive community approaches tend to emphasize communal agreement and fan resistance to the text-as-commodity Tulloch indicates that such agreement remains a matter of unevenly distributed (semiotic) power and fan knowledge: some fans have greater power to enforce and reinforce specific readings. These fans tend to be at the apex of their fandom's social hierarchy, and indeed Tulloch refers to them as 'executive fans' (Tulloch and Jenkins 1995:149) This also holds true in the case of football fans. While fans may be equal in the level of their support for a club or team, factors like where they watch a match- at home or in the stadium or even access to seats in the stadium indicate that some sort of social hierarchy is prevalent.

The nature of fans of English football in India is intrinsically linked to the kind of coverage the sport receives. The media plays a massive role in how football is portrayed to the public and not just the fans. It is here that the idea of articulation comes into play. Ernesto Laclau described the term as "a practice, and not the name of a given relational complex" (1985: 93). He further added that articulations are not permanent. Rather they are subject to change and can be influenced and inflected by alternative

While the promotional role of the newspaper has diminished since the unabashed cheerleading that occurred in the first half of the 20th century, a sports section today remains dependent on promoting the sports that it covers, both to create reader interest to sell newspapers and to create community interest to make the event well-attended enough to justify the media coverage. The arrangement between the team and the newspaper remains a tenuous but symbiotic relationship, fraught with both tension and appreciation for what one does for the other. "[O]ne of the happiest relationships in American society is that between sports and media. This interface is delightfully symbiotic, since each helps the other survive" (Michener, 1976, p. 285).

Stuart Hall furthered this concept of articulation. For him, articulation 'has the considerable advantage of enabling us to think of how specific practices articulated around contradictions which do not all arise in the same way, at the same point, in the same moment, can nevertheless be thought together. The structuralism paradigm thus does -- if properly developed -- enable us to begin really to conceptualize the specificity of different practices (analytically distinguished, abstracted out), without losing its grip on the ensemble which they constitute. (Hall, 1980a: 69)

In an oft cited quotation, Hall says of the media:

What is being articulated and put forth in the Indian media's dealings with football is worth looking at. The coverage of local football in both the English and Hindi press is limited. As far as screenings are concerned, most matches are not televised and those televised are never advertised. The impression given is that this is a dying league with nothing exciting for the fan to watch or invest in. The English Premier League, however, is a different story. While not in the same league as cricket, the EPL enjoys much wider coverage. Matches are telecast with regularity and there is major publicity involved. Newspapers and news channels carry scores and updates on a daily basis

Another point to consider here is the link between articulation and the concept of hegemony. Hegemony might be too strong a word but the Indian press does paint a prettier picture of the English Premier League at the expense of the Indian one. Laclau writes that:

"A class is hegemonic not so much to the extent that it is able to impose a uniform conception of the world on the rest of society, but to the extent that it can articulate different visions of the world in such a way that their potential antagonism is neutralized." (Laclau, 1977: 161)

The Indian league is now a poor distant cousin with the press (especially the English language ones) ensuring that more and more people identify with foreign leagues as opposed to the national one. As a result, football is now being perceived as an upper middle class sport, a far cry from say 10 years ago.

This is going in the right direction. However what you need to give the argument depth and detail is a detailed investigation of some of the commentaries made in India about watching soccer. I am sure that the broadsheets, up market magazines and even some TV coverage will address the phenomenon. In short, your object of study is actually the commentaries made by which members of the Indian media articulate fans and spectators. It is they who tell the general public what it is that the spectators are doing. You will find the theory outlined in my Just Talk, which is on BLE.

Sports journalism

Since the late 19th century, sports news has been a consistent element of most newspapers. However, sports journalism as a profession has continually reinvented itself, and the types of stories deemed acceptable for the sports pages as few as 10 years prior may no longer be acceptable. Because of their separation from the other sections of the newspaper in their goals and in their writing style, sports journalists at American newspapers have developed a distinct voice that sets their writing apart from other forms of newspaper writing.

Newspaper sports sections have carved a niche among a highly specific segment of readers, mostly middle- and upper-class males. Burgeon, Burgeon, and Wilkinson (1981) found that about 40% of newspaper readers read the sports section "most or all" of the time, but also found that 39% of regular newspaper readers rarely or never read the sports section, by far the largest of any section of the newspaper studied.

Football's role in mass media is obviously one of entertainment. Sports journalism has… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 32-page paper:  $24.68

or

2.  Buy & remove for 30 days:  $38.47

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

English Literature - Satire Proposal to Expand Term Paper


English Language Learners Philosophy of Education Thesis


English Grammar Essay


English as a Global Language Essay


English as 2nd Language Learning New Languages Research Proposal


View 1,000+ other related papers  >>

Cite This Dissertation:

APA Format

Epl Understanding English Premier League.  (2011, September 4).  Retrieved February 15, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/epl-understanding-english-premier-league/5009457

MLA Format

"Epl Understanding English Premier League."  4 September 2011.  Web.  15 February 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/epl-understanding-english-premier-league/5009457>.

Chicago Format

"Epl Understanding English Premier League."  Essaytown.com.  September 4, 2011.  Accessed February 15, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/epl-understanding-english-premier-league/5009457.