Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders Research Paper

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Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Occupational health hazards are widespread in many segments and are on the increase. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD's), which are troubles with the musculoskeletal system, are considerable and expensive workplace troubles affecting occupational health, output and the careers of the working population. Even though there is a lack of consistent medical information and a clear understanding of the temperament of MSD's, and considerable troubles in diagnosis which produce an ongoing debate regarding a lot of features of these conditions, a mixture of risk factors are acknowledged and precautionary measures are accessible. As safety and health at work is a pragmatic target and avoidance is obviously the best advance, the preventive attitude deserves meticulous consideration (Yamalik, 2006).

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A number of jobs are more vulnerable to MSD's than others and careers classified as high-risk share some universal factors that are largely related to the worksite surroundings, the job and the employee. As a result of occupational pressures placed on their bodies, oral health care providers (OHP) are also susceptible to MSD's. Even though symptomatic or asymptomatic cases may exist, the dangers are real. If overlooked, cumulative damage may result in lowered output and even in a career-ending injury or disability. Nevertheless, WMSD's are not a preventable division of an OHP's professional life. Paying the needed attention, not ignoring the indications, being familiar with the occupational and individual risk issues, commonness and results of WMSD's, and putting into practice the suggested health and safety procedures can make sure an extended and healthy occupation (Yamalik, 2007).

Research Paper on Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders Assignment

Rhythmic movements, stationary postures, overhead work and overuse of arms and hands are particular tasks that are used in dentistry. Rehabilitation professions conclude that dental practice unavoidably involves recurrent, ongoing mechanical compromises to job routine. Dental practice does not lead to contact injuries but may result in muscular inequity, neuromuscular inhibition, and pain and dysfunction mostly due to collective micro trauma and recurring use of uncomfortable positions. Yet, in most cases a mixture of multiple risk factors seem to operate rather than a solitary risk factor. Extended static postures, recurring movements, workplace plans, reduced positioning, genetic tendency, mental stress, physical conditioning, age and non-work actions can all be involved (Yamalik, 2007).

Ongoing conditions, such as MSD's, normally require long-term care and have substantial impact on the health and financial status of people, families and countries. Worldwide figures presently do not exist and the precise magnitude of the problem is not known. Nonetheless, traditional occupational sicknesses comprise a widespread problem. "According to OSHA and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), MSD's are significant and costly problems in the U.S.A. affecting 1.8 million U.S. workers each year; over 600.000 being serious" (Yamalik, 2006).

According to OSHA, occupational musculoskeletal disorders take place when there is a disparity between the physical necessities of the work and the physical capacity of the body. Ergonomics, as a result, is the fitting of the work to the employee by designing the work and generating work surroundings to assist in preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. OSHA has gone on to say that in 1996 more than six hundred thousand American employees underwent work-related serious harms due to overexertion or recurring movement, ensuing in thirty four percent of the lost work days being due to harms and costing an estimated fifteen billion to twenty billion in direct costs and forty five billion to sixty billion in roundabout costs in 1995 (Mito and Fernandez, 2002).

In the dental health arena, there has been a lot of concentration directed in the direction of carpal tunnel syndrome as a focal point of main apprehension with regard to work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Current studies have offered information that has directed awareness to other significant areas as well. Dentists persist to be at risk for a diversity of musculoskeletal indications. Yet, there appears to be precise apparatus, postural, and location variables that clinicians can regulate in order to reduce their dangers. The association of augmented musculoskeletal indications with use of the definite positions around the patient chair may be connected to the results of the torso-twisting and elbow-raising compromises acknowledged in the same posture and positioning (Rucker and Sunell, 2002).

As more and more complicated dental equipment has entered the market, the probability for enhancing the occupational health of dental practitioners has extended. Nevertheless, dental practitioners continue to recognize chronic back, neck and shoulder pain as occupational disorders, frequently connected with early retirement from the vocation. The literature shows that both dentists and hygienists are undergoing back, neck and shoulder pain and are, in a lot of instances, attributing these troubles to the stipulation of clinical care. Studies in median nerve sensitivity and cumulative trauma disorders of the median nerve, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, also recognize dental practitioners as being in danger. Constant reports of work-related and work-impairing harms of dentists and dental hygienists point out an average occurrence of more than sixty percent of employees who have undergone work loss associated with musculoskeletal pain (Rucker and Sunell, 2002).

The literature supports the association between working as a dental professional and the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and psychological stress. Recently there was a study conducted on the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome and median mononeuropathy amongst dentists. This study reported that dentists accounted hand and finger indications at an advanced rate than the universal population. On the other hand, when tested by electro diagnostic criterion, the definite frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome was comparable to that of the universal population. The attendance of signs increases the eventual risk for carpal tunnel syndrome. Therefore, the elevated rate of indications connected with dentistry supports the need for education concerning risk factors and early on detection of these indications to potentially augment disease management (Mito and Fernandez, 2002).

An ergonomics program is a methodical method of stopping, assessing and managing WMSD's and the dimension and style depends on the amount of the business. Primary and secondary interferences may decrease WMSD's by getting rid of external loads, altering organizational factors, changing social environment, improving individual stress-coping skills or corresponding the physical demands of the work with the worker's bodily capacity. While managerial controls can decrease the time of contact to biomechanical and psychosocial risk factors, enhancement of work methods can influence the psychological work environment. Some of these approaches may be more triumphant than others (Yamalik, 2006).

Dentistry is a visually dependent profession where the visual demands may necessitate adoption of fixed postures for extended periods of time. Difficulties in direct visualization of the working area, non-ergonomic visual designs, specific clinical tasks demanding attentiveness and accuracy and recurring tasks including hand grips act as sources of particular postural problems for OHP. Prolonged stationary or deviated postures and recurring motions under force frequently can not be evaded. Even with the best operational postures dentists still take for granted stationary postures which necessitate more than fifty percent of the body muscles to contract to hold the body stationary while resisting gravity. Such postures typically create long-drawn-out, repeated muscle contraction promoting muscle inequity characteristic of dentists, weak and elongated muscles on one side and short and stronger muscles on the other side, and pain due to overuse and localized muscle tiredness connected to dental tasks. If not corrected, this muscle inequity may lead to an irregular posture not only at work but in leisure activities, as well. Physiological consequences of prolonged stationary postures also comprise ischaemia, trigger points, joint hypomobility and spinal disk degeneration (Yamalik, 2007).

More than a few kinds of issues can result from using a magnification system with a declination angle that is not suitable for the clinician. Clinicians are likely to have eyestrain and strain in the musculature of the head, neck and back. If the frame or border of the lenses of the telescopes obscures any piece of the operating field, demanding a compromised head or body placement "In order to look at the diffraction effect, the clinician should pass a straight instrument from the outside of the unmagnified field toward the center of the magnified field and notice whether the point of the instrument goes directly to the center of the field or whether it passes above or below the center" (Rucker, Beattie, McGregor, Sunell and Ito, 1999).

Generally, the farther a clinician is required to tip the head forward and downward to see through telescopes, the larger the danger of strain to musculature of the head, neck and shoulder areas. Conversely, a certain amount of forward and downward tipping of the head diminishes the strain on the eye musculature, which goes with any extreme downward casting of the eyes. The optical declination angle, then, symbolizes equilibrium between the extremes of eyestrain when there is no downward tipping of the head and neck strain when there is no declination of the eyes. This equilibrium is vital (Rucker, Beattie, McGregor, Sunell and Ito, 1999).

Ergonomic fit differs between people. Non-ergonomic plans of workplaces, workplace layouts leading to overreaching and limiting maneuverability and equipment and tool designs that are not in line… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders.  (2011, March 25).  Retrieved February 27, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders."  25 March 2011.  Web.  27 February 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders."  March 25, 2011.  Accessed February 27, 2020.