Establishment: Pollution of Water, Solid Waste andBusiness Proposal

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¶ … Establishment:

Pollution of Water, Solid Waste and Climate Change Issues

Economic development and the concomitant rise in population leads to a rise in waste generation. Solid wastes, if not properly managed, threaten the environment and public health. Improper waste management and uncontrolled garbage dumping leads to several problems, including water contamination. Developed nations such as the European countries, Canada, and the United States (U.S.) have given the highest priority to climate research for many decades, to develop policies to minimize climate change's impact. The world's leading research organizations and universities have also made this a key part of their strategic planning (Indian Institute of technology Kanpur, 2009). With this in mind, establishment of a research chair to lead research pertaining to climate, water pollution and solid wastes has been proposed. This research program will involve numerous scientists from various fields such as environmental studies, environmental chemistry, climate change scientists, and geosciences. An interdisciplinary modus operandi is required to comprehend the environmental impact and formulate mitigation plans for containing and eliminating the threat posed by water pollution, climate change, and improper management of solid wastes. All of these activities suggest and indeed necessitate the establishment of a research chair for coordinating activities.

Description of the research program

Executive summary

The university's distinctive role in society is fragile and even somewhat jeopardized. That role, in its essence, is to deepen and extend human understanding by way of research, teaching and scholarships. The university needs to raise stimulating challenges and address highly concerning issues that focus on society's traditional beliefs regarding appropriate management of solid wastes, climate change problems, and water pollution. Thus, the research chair is required (CAUT, 2013). Context

The study endeavors to strengthen the capability to recognize, evaluate, and review water pollution, climate change, and waste management in line with sustainable developmental goals. Establishing an institutional framework to support research implementation and collaboratively build the competence of related departments are both needed to meet these goals. Furthermore, the research incorporates an action plan and strategy preparation for developing and implementing environmental research in its every aspect (DPRK, 2012).

Investigations for an environmental structure to link waste management and climate change will be furthered. As well, whenever decision-making on water pollution, climate change, and effective waste management is carried out, it must be done keeping sustainable development and environmental impact in mind. Hence, this research will prove useful both in the short- and long-term (UK Waste Management Options and Climate Change, n.d).

The focus of this research is fluctuations and change in Canada's climate, the causative factors, and the environmental and societal impacts. Research methodology involves the following: laboratory and field research to understand climatic processes; tracking and understanding change through solid waste, water and climate change monitoring; and initiation of future change estimations through developing and employing climate models. Scientific outcomes form the basis of mitigation and adaptation activities for development of climate policies as well as climate-related products and services for Canadians. Assessment of water quality and quantity is included in water research (Environment Canada, n.d).

Relevant literature

Globally, over 1 million children below five years of age die from diarrhea; this forms the second highest cause of childhood mortality after respiratory infections, and causes roughly 19% of deaths of children in developing nations. Poor hygiene, improper or totally absent sanitation, and polluted drinking water are major causative factors (Roy, 2011). Even in non-fatal cases, those suffering from chronic diarrhea during their early childhood may become malnourished, have stunted growth, perform worse in schools, and have low infection resistance (Wastewater, n.d.).

Improvement of water sources is not sufficient in itself, as often both unsafe storage and unhygienic water accumulation may cause re-contamination. This means that ensuring safe drinking water is a non-trivial issue. Presently, more than 150 billion liters of undertreated and untreated sewage water are dumped each year into waterways. This is a crucial health, economic, and environmental issue (Wastewater, n.d.).

Already, climate change has significantly affected ecosystems, communities, and economies. The impacts of climate change are already being observed across the diverse geographic areas of Canada. The forests of Canada, which are home to countless ecosystems and species, are considered among the world's most vulnerable forests to be impacted by climate change. This is only one example of the many habitats at risk. Global alpine glacier and ice sheet meltdown are additional climate change phenomena greatly affecting Arctic ecosystems (Roy, 2011).

As a processor and producer of resources, Canada generates considerable quantities of semi-solid and solid waste. The Canadian oil-sand industry forms the largest producer of solid waste; it produced 645 million sand tailing tons out of surface mining in 2008. This includes 98 million fluid tailing tons (made of water, clay, silt, bitumen and sand), and 547 million sand tailing tons. These tailings are stockpiled in situ near the place of extraction (Prevention and solutions to water pollution, n.d.).

In 2008, 473 million tailings and waste rock tons were generated by domestic mining (non-metal and metal mineral extraction). In 2006, livestock manure produced 181 million tons; while in 2008, industry, businesses, institutions and households produced 34 million tons municipal solid wastes (Prevention and solutions to water pollution, n.d.).

On adopting Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3Rs), often, residual materials remain which require disposal or treatment. Minimizing environmental and health effects is also crucial, by way of environmentally-sound waste management. Collecting, diverting (composting and recycling), and disposing of wastes in Canada are the municipal governments' responsibility. Territories and provinces are in charge of licensing, monitoring and approving operations (Prevention and solutions to water pollution, n.d.).

Rationale for the Research Chair allocation

With the rise in Canada's water pollution and dumping of wastes, this Research Chair will formulate plans to:

Considerably decrease emission of greenhouse gases to maintain levels of global warming well below 2° C. According to scientists, this is the point where catastrophe will occur.

Give high priority to adaptation funding, for aiding poor individuals (particularly women) in adapting themselves to climate change impacts. This includes readily accessible and clean water, renewable sources of energy, reforestation initiatives, fuels for cooking, and education on climate change.

Support women's organizations, especially their leadership and involvement in actions pertaining to climate change.

Allow technology transfers that build capabilities in poor nations for developing suitable technologies, sustainable transportation, and renewable energy sources. One topic of emphasis should be to empower women to adjust themselves to climate change (Climate Change 2008).

Gauge the likelihood of meeting or going beyond Climate Thresholds in case of infrastructure's remaining service duration.

Carry out risk/vulnerability assessments related to climate change, for defining risks.

Include adaptation in city planning models.

Prioritize vulnerability and change in Bioclimatic Envelopes.

Enhance connectivity of habitats in human- dominated landscapes

Manage Disturbance Regimes

Manage invasive exotic species

Restore and protect natural drainage and wetlands

Change human infrastructural design for conserving water quality and quantity

Move water-intensive industries and population to water, and not the other way around

Incorporate Water Uses of Humans at Watershed Scales

All-inclusive Capital Planning for Community Climate Adaptation through Relocation and Redesign of Community (Feltmate & Thistlethwaite, 2012)

Solution Proposal

Pollutants should preferably not be allowed to enter water. In certain circumstances, for particularly dangerous contaminants, not more than very low concentrations can be permitted. All Canadian territories and provinces have regulations for pollutant control. Several questions are raised while deciding what substances are to be controlled, determining their concentrations, and how their entry into environment may occur; these include:

What are the substances' sources, quantities and effects?

How do they act, and what happens once the enter water bodies? Does change occur? If yes, what is the change?

Where do these substances finally end up?

Can these substances be removed through treatment or prevented from entering water bodies? (Wastewater, n.d.).

In several cases, technology may be employed for reducing or eliminating harmful substances. Properly maintained and operated plants for sewage treatment remove numerous poisonous substances from industrial and domestic waste water; treated water is returned to a lake or river without causing any harm downstream. Plants for water treatment can make lake or river water potable (Wastewater, n.d.).

Contaminants, when not removed, may exist only in minute quantities; however, as they are enduring, they can accumulate to highly toxic levels. We can, in such instances, safeguard ecosystem and future generations in only a single way: not allowing chemicals to enter water systems (Wastewater, n.d.).

Non-degradable products like glass, motor oil, and cans, can be recycled, and non-toxic products used. A majority of household pesticides and chemical products are sold with warning labels that provide information addressing whether the product is toxic, explosive, flammable or corrosive. Properly disposing these products is crucial for ensuring that quality of water isn't impacted (Wastewater, n.d.).

Every individual should participate in controlling water pollution by the following means:

Garbage should be disposed of in the right bin, or taken home and thrown in the trash can, and not on beaches, riversides and in water bodies.

Water must be judiciously used… [END OF PREVIEW]

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