Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Dissertation

Pages: 25 (6827 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Transportation

¶ … prosperity in the developing nations of Asia such as Indonesia is exacting a toll on the health of people and the environment through increased vehicular travel and concomitant increases in harmful emissions. This aim of this case study is to estimate and to quantify road traffic emissions and determine how they could have a bearing on the transportation sector in Jakarta, Indonesia. To carry out this research, it is proposed that it must follow three main steps. Firstly, to analyse the current data about characteristics of transportation such us traffic volume, average speed and proportion of vehicles in the main streets of Jakarta. Secondly, to examine these parameters within a particular air pollution model to determine the impact of the pollution this has occurred. Finally, based on the data provided, the third step is aimed at establishing any instantaneous scenario and some recommendations which could be under taken by Jakarta city government to reduce air pollution.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of Study

Importance of Study

Overview of Study

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Chapter 3: Methodology

Description of the Study Approach

Data-gathering Method and Database of Study

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

Chapter 5: Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendation for Further Research

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Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta, Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Emissions

Chapter 1: Introduction

Dissertation on Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Emissions Assignment

Urban air quality has become an increasingly important issue facing some so-called megacities in Southeast Asia, including Manila, Bangkok and Jakarta. The improvement of technology and population growth increases the number of motor vehicles and industrial estates in urban areas. Motor vehicles and industrial activity, which produces exhaust gases, is a pollutant that causes a decrease in air quality. An imperfect combustion of fuels used as energy sources for motor vehicles is introduced into the air in the form of gases and particles. Motor vehicle exhaust pollutant release (pollutants) take in the form of gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), and Hydrocarbons (HC) and the form such of as dust particles, aerosols and lead. Air contaminated by these pollutants can cause disruption in the lives of humans, animals and plants.

Air pollution represents a major health hazard in a growing number of regions of the world; however, polluted air is especially problematic in some developing nations where regulations governing air quality have traditionally been lax or nonexistent (Bolt & Dasgupta, 2001). At present, the international healthcare community attributes a wide range of healthcare problems to suspended particulate matter, with the most damaging among being air pollutants (Bolt & Dasgupta, 2001). Indeed, Bolt and Dasgupta emphasize that, "Ambient concentrations of particulates in many cities of the developing world routinely exceed the World Health Organization safety standard by a factor of three or more" (2001, p. 37). These are not insignificant numbers because they translate directly into adverse healthcare outcomes in developing nations where access to healthcare services may be limited (Fischlowitz-Roberts, 2009). In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that more than three million people die from the harmful effects of air pollution each year, a rate that is fully three times the number of deaths from automobile accidents each year (Fischlowitz-Roberts, 2009). According to Fischlowitz-Roberts (2009), "A study published in the Lancet in 2000 concluded that air pollution in France, Austria, and Switzerland is responsible for more than 40,000 deaths annually in those three countries alone. About half of these deaths can be traced to air pollution from vehicle emissions" (2009, p. 33).

Vehicle emissions are notoriously difficult to monitor over time since their sources change, but what is known is that particulate air pollution is a combination of small and large particles that have different origins and chemical compositions (Bolt & Dasgupta, 2001). In recent years, the focus of health research concerning air pollution has shifted from all particles to small particles that are less than 10 microns in diameter ([PM.sub.10]) and, most recently, to particles with diameters that are less than 2.5 microns ([PM.sub.2.5]) (Bolt & Dasgupta, 2001). This shift is based on the preponderance of vehicular emissions that are the source of interest. In this regard, Bolt and Dasgupta report that, "Large particles usually contain dust and smoke from industrial processes, construction, agriculture, and road traffic, as well as plant pollen and other natural sources. Smaller particles generally originate from combustion of fossil fuels. These particles include soot from vehicle exhaust, which is often coated with chemical contaminants or metals, and fine sulfate and nitrate aerosols that form when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions condense in the atmosphere" (p. 38).

At present, the most significant sources of fine particles continue to be power plants that are coal-fired and internal combustion-driven motor vehicles (Bolt & Dasgupta, 2001). Although larger particulates would appear to be intuitively more troublesome, it is the smaller particles that are of specific interest to healthcare providers because of their ability to harm human beings when they are encountered in the environment. In this regard, Bolt and Dasgupta note that, "Small particles are more dangerous because they can penetrate deep into the lungs, settling in areas where natural clearance mechanisms, like coughing, cannot remove them. The constituent elements in small particles also tend to be more chemically active and therefore more damaging" (2001, p. 38).

The epidemiological studies to date concerning exposure to particulates, especially small particulates, have identified a significant correlation between small particulate matter, respiratory illness and death. In fact, Bolt and Dasgupta report that:

For urban residents in Latin America, some estimates suggest that particulates cause 65 million days of illness each year. A 1996 study finds that particulate pollution has inflicted serious health damage on the 4.8 million inhabitants of Santiago, Chile, a city with particularly poor air quality. Other research indicates that air pollution in Jakarta, Indonesia, is responsible for some 1,400 deaths, 49,000 emergency-room visits, and 600,000 asthma attacks per year. Health effects of exposure to particulates range in severity from coughing and bronchitis to heart disease and lung cancer. (2001, p. 38)

Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia has encountered the same pollutions problems as other large cities. The most significant cause of air pollution in Jakarta was produced by motor vehicles which accounted for approximately 70% of emissions. This correlates directly with the ratio between the number of motor vehicles, the number of population and land area of Jakarta. Based on data from the Police Commission of Indonesia, the number of registered motor vehicles in Jakarta, in June 2009 was 9,993,867 vehicles, while the population of Jakarta in March 2009 was 8,513,385 inhabitants.

Comparison of these data showed that the number of motor vehicles in Jakarta is more than the population. Growth in the number of vehicles in Jakarta is larger than population. Growth in the number of vehicles in Jakarta is also very high, reaching 10.9% per year. These numbers are very significant because of the availability of road infrastructure in Jakarta has not complied with ideal level of provision. The length of roads in Jakarta is only about 7650 kilometres with an area of 40.1 square kilometres, or only 6.26% of the total area. In fact, the ideal ratio between the area of road infrastructure and is 14%. As these conditions worsened congestion and air pollution increased rapidly (World Bank survey, 2004). According to the World Bank, the social costs of exposure to airborne dust and lead in Jakarta approached 10% of average incomes in the early 1990s (Fischlowitz-Roberts, 2003).

Moreover, although the disadvantages of automobile and truck-based transportation systems are well documented and include air pollution, suburban sprawl and traffic gridlock which are endemic to emerging countries, the overwhelming "combination of the need and the desire to drive automobiles has become so great that some cities such as Jakarta have restricting bicycle use in favor of cars and motorcycles. Jakarta even tossed 20,000 bicycle rickshaws into Jakarta Bay in the 1980s to rid the city of a 'backward technology'" (Pedal power, 2008, p. 19). In sum, Jakarta is faced with some profound challenges as it seeks to overcome the adverse effects of rapid economic growth while balancing the need to ensure that current investments in transportation infrastructure are used to their maximum advantage, and these issues are discussed further below as they relate to the problem of interest to this study.

Statement of the Problem

Studies by the World Bank indicate that air pollution in Jakarta is responsible for 1,000 to 2,000 deaths a year in each city; 25,000 to 100,000 cases of sickness requiring doctor's visits or hospitalization; and millions to hundreds of millions of "restricted activity" and "respiratory symptom" days (Brandon, 2009). Transportation issues, though, are very complex because they involve a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues and there remains a great deal of inconsistency between land use plan and transportation planning (Brandon, 2009). In addition, the growth in traffic in developing nations such as Indonesia has created traffic congestion problems that causes… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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