Article Critique: Ethical Leadership Describe Each Study

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Ethical Leadership

Describe Each Study

There are some articles that deal with organizational ethical values and the leadership values. These articles are based on research and studies conducted in different areas of the world to find if there is a role of ethical leadership in productivity of organizations. There are many other positive effects of implementing organizational and leadership ethics in a corporation. Following is a brief analysis of each of the five given articles to find what each article studies and what did it find.

The Influence of Supervisory Behavioral Integrity on Intent to Comply with Organizational Ethical Standards and Organizational Commitment

Janie Harden Fritz, Naomi Bell O'Neil, Ann Marie Popp, Cory Williams, Ronald C. Arnett

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: The research revolves around understanding expectations for appropriate employee business conduct. The research uses following hypothesis:

H1a. Supervisory behavioral integrity regarding appropriate business conduct directly and positively influences employee compliance with organizational expectations for appropriate business conduct.

H2a. Supervisory behavioral integrity regarding appropriate business conduct directly and positively influences employee commitment to the organization.

H2b. Organizational cynicism mediates the relationship between supervisory behavioral integrity regarding appropriate business conduct and employee commitment to the organization.

The research purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine cynicism as mediating factor in influencing communication of manager.

The type of design and elements of the design: The data for the research is collected from sample with 40 years of average age. There were total 57.4% men and 41.5% women in the sample and rest hid their gender. The sample participants had different jobs in various organizations. There were 49.7% lower level employees, 25.4% mid-level managers, 10.7% upper level managers.

Threats to validity and if and how they were addressed: The results could not be valid if the questionnaires were not properly formatted and the respondents failed to understand the purpose of research. The purpose was thus communicated in detail with the respondents.

The findings and their implications: The study found the influence of managerial behavioral integrity on employee intentions regarding compliance with expectations. The association of managerial communication and behavior is significantly related institutional outcomes. The managerial conduct affects organization's mission and awareness. The findings can be implemented to understand how employee commitment can be improved.

Article 2

Fostering Good Citizenship Through Ethical Leadership: Exploring the Moderating Role of Gender and Organizational Politics

Authors: Michele Kacmar and Daniel G. Bachrach, Kenneth J. Harris and Suzanne Zivnuska

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: The research is based on hypothesis that Ethical leadership is positively associated with employee OCB.

The research purpose: The research is aimed at testing what relations are there in ethical leadership and person-focused and task-focused organizational citizenship.

The type of design and elements of the design: The research was carried out by asking questions. The sample was 83% supervisors with an average age of 47.3 years and organizational experience of average 13.2 years. There were 46% male and 54% females in the sample. In the subordinate sample, the average age of employees was 45.8 years and 10.5 years' experience. 39% subordinates were male and 61% were female.

Threats to validity and if and how they were addressed: There was a threat that cross-sectional data do could not permit to eliminate alternative explanations of relationships. The threat was dealt with by covering a bigger sample so that relationships are studied in detail. Yet the results are limited to public sector and need to be validated for private sector.

The findings and their implications: It was found that perception of organizational politics and ethical leadership are correlated. Thus this implies that for an effective and positive perception of the organizational leadership, there should be ethical leadership.

Article 3

An Empirical Study of Leader Ethical Values, Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and Follower Attitudes toward Corporate Social Responsibility

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: The study is based on the following hypothesis:

H 1: Leaders with deontological ethical values will be rated by followers as demonstrating transformational leadership.

H 2: Leader teleological ethical values will be rated by followers as demonstrating

Transactional leadership.

H3: Transformational leadership will be positively associated with follower valuing of Corporate social responsibility

The research purpose: The purpose of study was to find how transformational leadership is associated with the beliefs of followers.

The type of design and elements of the design: Questions were asked to the sample of 580 individuals out of which 122 were leaders and 458 were followers in 97 different organizations. There were 18 leaders from aerospace, 18 from government services, 14 professional services officers, and 13 from education. In the sample, 59% organizations were for-profit, 22% publicly traded, 58.2% private and 19.7% government. 17% leaders were frontline managers, 36% project team leaders, 19.7% middle managers and 35% top level managers.

Threats to validity and if and how they were addressed: There was a risk that involving too many sectors could not offer a valid specialized result but it did offer a generalized result. The behavior was studies in a range of leaders and followers thus validating results.

The findings and their implications: The study helped find implications for organizations and management education programs. The role of organization to encourage formal assessment of the leader's ethical values and maintaining healthy relationships is evident. The study suggests that the leaders face challenge of development and they should focus to improve key ethical values.

Article 4

Actions Speak Louder Than Words the Benefits of Ethical Behaviors of Leaders

Author: Tanner, C., Brugger, A., Schie, S.V., Lebherz, C.

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: Questions were asked regarding range

Of behaviors that characterize manifestations of ethical values in various settings

The research purpose: The purpose of the study is to find issues in ethical leadership. The study was also conducted to assess level of leaders' ethical behavior.

The type of design and elements of the design: The data for study was collected from sample of 419 individuals and another group of 173 people. These were two separate Swiss federal police departments and the data was collected online in 2 months.

Threats to validity and if and how they were addressed: The threat to confidentiality of data was dealt by keeping police respondent's name confidential. The threat of biasness was removed by conducting research online.

The findings and their implications: The study found that employee's ethical behavior affects different dimensions like job satisfaction, work, commitment, and engagement. The employees can be taught how improving ethical behavior can improve their level of satisfaction.

Article 5

Impact of corporate ethical values on ethical leadership and employee performance

Authors: Sabir, M.S., Iqbal, J.J., Rehman, K., Shah, K.A. And Yameen, M

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: The study is based on the following hypothesis:

H.I. Corporate ethical values have the positive relationship with ethical leadership

H.2. Ethical leadership has the positive relationship with employee performance

H.3 Corporate ethical values have the positive relationship with ethical leadership and employee performance.

The research purpose: The purpose of this study is to inspect how corporate ethical values affect ethical leadership and performance of employee in Pakistan.

The type of design and elements of the design: The research seeks to develop a relationship between corporate ethical values, ethical leadership the performance of an employee. The sample consisted of employees in various organizations and cities of Pakistan. The respondents were from middle and top level management. Sample size was 190. The organizations included banks, hotels, public and private companies. 40% of the population had age between 30 to 40 years.

Threats to validity and if and how they were addressed: The study results could be contaminated by biasness thus different levels of management were involved openly so that a transparent study is conducted without withholding the purpose of research from any respondent.

The findings and their implications: It was found that there is positive significant correlation between corporate ethical values and leadership and a strong consistency between ethical leadership and employee performance. Also it was found that corporate values and ethical leadership play key role in determining employee performance.

Part 2. How you might conduct the research study differently

I am selecting the article number five "Impact of corporate ethical values on ethical leadership and employee performance" by Sabir, M.S., Iqbal, J.J., Rehman, K., Shah, K.A. And Yameen; M. The article studies the corporate ethical values, ethical leadership and employee performance. I would have used a slightly different and effective methodology for conducting the research.

The research questions: The research in the article explored answers to ethical behaviors and their influence on employee performance. Besides corporate ethical values and the ethical values of a leader, I would have also studied the impact of employees own values on his performance. Also I would have included questions like:

a. Do ethical leadership values influence ethical subordinate values?

b. Is the leader's ethical behavior's influence on employee temporary or permanent?

c. Is the employee performance marginally or highly affected form leader's temporary unethical behavior

The research purpose: The purpose… [END OF PREVIEW]

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