Research Paper: Ethics and Leadership, Forming

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¶ … ethics and leadership, forming a set of principles that can be applied in my particular leadership role. The paper is organized according to the principles that I have learned. This paper is divided into 3 three sections. The first section discusses philosophical and historical background of ethics. The second section fashions the role of educational leadership and its links to ethics and assesses how the two have evolved over time. The third and last section discusses my personal view of ethics within the role of educational administration.

Ethical Frameworks

In the Western custom, the debate of ethics dates to Plato (427 -347 B.C.) as well as Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). The origin of the phrase "ethics" is from the Greek word ethos, "which means customs, behaviour, or character" (Northouse 2010, p. 378). Moral principles, on the other hand, articulate a sense of responsibility and commitment to others and are collective to a group of individuals. Values are more distinctive and individual, expressing personal choices (Strike et al., 2005).

Philosophy and principles of what is correct and what is incorrect therefore offer the basis of debate and conformity within a group as to what is thought of ethical by that group. For persons and civilizations moral frameworks are collectively a group standards that describe what is thought of as good or bad, ethical or unethical, and therefore direct our personal and group actions. Conformities on ethical principles then offer a base for a moral structure, which "offer a system of rules or main beliefs that direct us in making choices in a particular state of affairs," (Northouse, p. 378).

From a teleological viewpoint, the result of a deed decides how morally correct the action is. The conditions for how results can be judged differ. Ethical selfishness places large stress on one's own goodwill and selfishness and is seen as the least attractive scope for a leader's actions. Utilitarianism and unselfishness both centre on the welfare of others, as compared to self-interest, and are thought of more attractive moral approaches for leaders.

A utilitarian viewpoint holds verdicts and activities that result in the maximum good for the most amounts of individuals as the most excellent or most ethical decisions and actions. Utilitarianism furthermore is also known as the principle of gain maximization (Strike et al., 2005) where results of a choice or deed are the influential crucible, although every one do not obtain equal benefits.

An altruistic standpoint views behaviour that encourages the greatest interest or well-being of others as the most ethical. Strike et al. (2005) expressed a consequence of altruism, the Principle of Equal Respect, which needs individuals to be thought of as a way relatively than ends, are viewed as "free and reasonable ethical agents," and are seen as having alike value (p. 17 -18).

Moral deeds based on the Principle of Equal Respect would be categorized by esteem for the alike, inherent value of each being and admiration for each being's liberty of selection. Strike et al. (2005) also expressed two other, sometimes contrasting, corollaries, which centre on the assistance to others as results of actions. The Principle of Equal Treatment suggests that "in any given situation, individuals who are similar in those respects pertinent to how they are dealt with in those situations should obtain alike treatment" (p. 55).

Justifying efforts whilst handling inequities is referred to as the Maximin Principle. Under this standard, inequity is allowed when every person benefits as a consequence of increasing the well-being of those who in general obtain a least amount of share of the advantages - a viewpoint, which typify social impartiality efforts. While a teleological decisive factor of actions could be seen as mitigating the tarnished Machivellian approach of the ends explaining the means, a deontological standard also weighs the ethics of an action apart from the results it may produce. Doing the "correct thing" would be judged by whether the deed satisfied a responsibility to others, did not violate the rights and privileges of others, helped others, as well as was righteous in itself (Northouse 2010). Examples of righteous actions comprise of "being honest, keeping promises, being just, and valuing others" (p. 381).

Shapiro and Stefkovich (2005) showed numerous paradigms for the investigation of moral behaviour. These comprise of the ethic of impartiality, the ethic of analysis, the ethic of concern, and the ethic of the work. Based on an open-minded, democratic custom, the ethic of impartiality is defined as a "promise to human liberty" and "measures for making choices that value the equivalent dominion of people" (Strike, 1991, p. 415).

The stress on the function of the individual in comparison to the generously proportioned society can differ, though. The work of researchers such as Hobbes, Kant, Rawls, and Kohlberg places "the person as vital and communal relationships as a kind of social agreement where the person, using human motive, gives up a number of rights for the good of the entire or for social impartiality" (Shapiro & Stefkovich 2005, p. 11).

The ideas of Aristotle, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, and Dewey see "civilization, rather than a single person, as essential and seeks to educate individuals how to act throughout their life inside communities" (p.11).

The moral of justice regularly serves as the foundation for legal ideology and official policies since its logical and reasonable approach to interpreting human actions and interactions.

The moral of evaluation is entrenched in significant theory and highlights moral behaviour as that which deals with impartiality among person and groups, connected to social class and other points which affect one's authority and say, in addition to the resulting treatment, wherewithal, and other advantages. The moral of analysis "asks educators to go ahead of inquiry and significant analysis to observe and struggle with those possibilities that could allow all kids, no matter what their social class, race, or sex, to have chances to nurture, study, and attain. Such a procedure should guide to the growth of options related to significant concepts such as domination, authority, privilege, influence, voice, speech, and empowerment," in line with Shapiro and Stefkovich (2005, p. 16).

The moral of care is entrenched in the study of feminist scholars like Gilligan and Noddings. The moral of concern urges educators to look after the poignant and ethical development of kids rather than tension educational accomplishment as the main or sole reason of schooling. These moral places students at the centre of moral decision-making and focuses on relational principles such as belief, faithfulness, belonging, sense of self, and self-efficacy as well as the needs and desires of youthful individuals in schools.

Shapiro and Stefkovich distinguish that there may be problems between the three beforehand discussed moral frameworks, so the best concern of the students should be primary in deciding the actions taken by instructive leaders. Fourth moral of profession which incorporates the other three morals, based on an instructive leader's assessment of his or her own values and the moral codes put forth by a variety of specialized organizations as said by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2005).

The basis of Educational Leadership as an Ethical Endeavour

Scholars related to educational leadership since the 1990's have more and more focused on the moral or ethical feature of management notes Northouse (2005). In the early 1970s, Greenleaf developed the idea of servant leadership, which pointed out how leaders watch out for the needs of supporters and thus grow to be leaders. Sergiovanni (1992) also supported for servant leadership in his analysis. Other scholars, for instance, Farling et al. (1999), Russell & Stone (2002), Sendjaya & Sarros (2002), as well as Blanchard (2003) have all found out a variety of ways and manifestations of the notion of servant leadership. Various points have also been thought of as an attempt to describe or gauge servant leadership (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009).

The control of values and the connected issue of ethical actions of leaders are also mentioned by a number of instructive scholars with merely a small sampling noted here in This paper. Marion (2002) discusses ethics within the framework of the power implemented by leaders over followers in an educational institution. Northouse (2005) prefaces his section on leadership morals with the idea that, unlike preceding chapters that pointed out on "one united leadership hypothesis or approach," the topic of moral behaviour is many-sided and separated across many viewpoints. Northouse also identifies five main beliefs recognized in the investigation that describe the behaviour of moral leaders, those being admiration for others, helping others, showing impartiality, manifesting sincerity, and building neighbourhood. Lashway (2006) presents general ethical principles and a sequence of questions to direct moral decision-making. Matthews and Crow (2010) sketch upon servant and ethical leadership to hold up the growth of professional learning groups by school leader as it is stresses the requirement for ethical leadership at all levels of the instructive system for school reform to achieve something. Fullan (2003, 2010)

Many texts also associate the topics discussed by writers with the five Interstate School Leaders Licensure… [END OF PREVIEW]

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