Ethics There Are Several Different Essay

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Sexual Behavior

Virtue ethics tends to hold that the major moral flaw here is that the people are not married, since adultery is a selfish act that only harms others. Virtuous people do not focus their energies on selfish behavior, thus the act is wrong. Kantian ethics would not only point to prevailing moral codes against adultery, which are near-universal in human society, but against the use of the company boardroom as well. The company's prevailing code of ethics should set the standard here, and unless the company is Stratton Oakmont, in which case such behavior is accepted. In most companies, however, sex in the boardroom would violate the categorical imperative.

Consequentialist ethics would hold the consequences of the action to be the determinant of its morality. There are a lot of ways that this could play out. If nobody sees the act and it does not cause any disruption to anybody, then there is no moral prohibition against this act from the consequentialist perspective. Thus, context matters. If the employees are caught, and this leads to disorder in the company, or if their actions destroy pre-existing relationships, then by the consequentialist standard this act would be wrong. The utilitarian argument is going to be similar, except that because the benefits of the sex go to two people, it is highly unlikely that the balance of goodness will fall on the side of this being an ethical act. For that to happen, the act would have to produce a baby that grows up to make a great contribution to society. Odds are that won't happen.

Drinking

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In virtue ethics, drinking is itself a neutral act. Virtue goes to deep levels far beyond habits (Hursthouse, 2012). As a result, the act of drinking is itself a neutral act, and it is only those acts which occur as the result of the drinking that can be negative under virtue ethics -- they must be evaluated on their own, however, as a distinct issue.

TOPIC: Essay on Ethics There Are Several Different Assignment

The Kantian perspective on drinking is going to be relative to the prevailing standards of the culture. Kant sought to define the categorical imperative as a law of nature, and arguably drunkenness is not favored in nature. The inebriated state is not natural, nor is it enlightened. Kantian ethics may not have any real position on drunkenness, but if it does it would not be in favor of it.

From a consequentialist perspective, again context is required. In general, someone who drinks to excess is probably a liability, and if they aren't their habit may induce others to follow suit, though perhaps those actions should be evaluated on their own merits. For the individual, unless they happen to perform better drunk than sober (like a lot of famous writers, or even somebody who gets drunk while conducting business that is worth a lot of money) this will be a negative act. There could be extenuating circumstances that make the drunkenness favorable, but this is highly unlikely.

From a utilitarian perspective, most people drinking to excess, therefore, will be doing more harm than good. This is because drinking is selfish, and while it conveys benefit to the alcohol producers and sellers, it creates negative consequences for his own company. Only if the drunkenness did not produce those negative consequences would be it neutral or modestly favorable.

References

Driver, J. (2009). The history of utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/

Hursthouse, R. (2012). Virtue ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://stanford.library.usyd.edu.au/entries/ethics-virtue/

Johnson, R. (2008). Kant's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/

Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011) Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/ [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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