Book Report: Ethnic Tourism and Cultural

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[. . .] 2011). The sociological inference of ethnic tourism will be explained through the macro viewpoint of historical tendencies from the current to the postmodern. The expression the modern' is regularly related in social sciences but its idea is extremely broad and obscure. The significance of 'the modern' as talked about in the article in this is the 'sociocultural trend of the time' I agree with that because it was particularly described by development and westernization. Two dominant standards motivate this trend: rationalism and activities. The contemporary has shaped the present social authenticity in all sociological measurements: from designs of separate activity through social arrangements to the World System.

The social dissimilarities in tourism, as stated above, clearly appear in the Word System. I agree with the article the transformation is a goal for all societies in the interior of the World System which contains societies with diverse levels of upgrading: from highly modernized, through updating to unmodernized culture. Progressed contemporary cultures are 'tourist' producing communities,' and instead, non-modern associations are 'tourist' receiving societies.' During the 1960s and the 70s and unprecedentedly group of people in progressive contemporary communities s have taken to doing some, marking the beginning of 'mass tourism.' And how ethnic and cultural tourism play a part. It was intriguing to learn that a lot of people in progressive contemporary societies, nevertheless, have recently become aware of the restrictions and ills of the contemporary, such as the worsening of public morals, setting difficulties, the hole among the rich and the poor, racial setbacks and so on, even though they have gotten comparative material prosperity. Substitutes to the contemporary seem to have been expected by many people in sophisticated modern societies since the 1980 s. A replacement to the modern is the postmodern. This is also an unclear idea but it is mentioned to in the community sciences. The sense of the postmodern as expended in this paper is new tendencies moving on from the current. How are these past propensities connected to ethnic tourism? Hiwaski (2000) specified that modern man is a 'pilgrim' who voyages pursuing for modern 'authenticity.' recently, many tourists have become travelers in search for 'exoticism', which is the chief magnetism of ethnic tourism. 'Exoticism' can be seen as typical of additional Cultures from the position of modernization or westernization or (Ringer, G. 2002). Ethnic tourism has gradually come to attract the consideration of tourists in the setting of the postmodern. Since the 1980s, the theory of the postmodern has been widely discussed in advanced modern countries. Such discussions have been enlarged upon in the theme of postmodern tourism (Gang, C. 2011)). The theory of the postmodern has a diversity of subjects and is not clearly defined, but its main question is how to know and overcome the problem of modernization. At the same time with the rise of the theory of the postmodern, mass tourism in ethnic and cultural tourism, which is thoroughly associated with modernization, has started to be assessed in tourism studies. Tourism researchers have stated that mass tourism has produced homogenization in tourist purposes and reduced their own social-cultural individualities (Jones, G., & Ells, K. 2009)). In tourism studies, the philosophy of 'alternative tourism' has performed at the same time as the theory of the postmodern (Smith and Eadington 1992).

This issue of dissimilarities in tourism was branded as inventing from the 'Modern World System' (Jones, G., & Ells, K. 2009) molded by modernization. Mass tourism has happened in countries that are considered rich and in the northern hemisphere that have understood the progressive modern. Therefore the issue of variations in international tourism has been intrinsic in the characteristic of tourism itself produced from the modern. Current international seems to expose the 'North-South Problem.' To find out a way of variations in tourism, troubles relating to modernization in cultural tourism, which is the origin of tourism, I think needs to be reviewed and reconsidered according to the article. The difficulty of disparities in tourism seems more forcefully in ethnic tourism for several details: the one is that 'exoticism' as a main tourist attraction of ethnic tourism is deeply connected with problems of modernization; and the other is that the imbalanced association between hosts and guests is directly apparent, since the hosts themselves are closely involved as a part of the tourist attraction. Up until this stage, ethnic tourism organization has been a part of mass tourism inside the progressed modern tourism arrangement. Ethnic tourism has taken place also openly or secretly to fit the needs of tourists from innovative radical cultures. Therefore, the styles of life, societies, culture of native people who become tourist attractions have been altered and occasionally demolished.

Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies

The difficulties of tourism happen mostly because a huge part of world tourism is measured by the tourists' position, that is, the international corporations based in frugally acquired nations. The association among those businesses and the host countries are not equivalent. The countries that poor are always overpowered by short-term viewpoints or their starvation for money. As an outcome, the governments of emerging countries tend to "keep quiet" about the difficulties of tourism. For instance, hotels that are resorts are typically constructed on the fishing villages or areas where local people are living. I believe as research states that the local people should be notified in advance but most as the article showed, a lot of them are just ignored because local administrators are normally bribed to say that no one opposed. They are compelled to move out to shantytowns and then their jobs are taken from them. I agree that the in the resort hotels, tourists use up, or waste, a lot of electricity and water which in return causes a shortage of resources that are natural for people who live local and the contamination of the natural setting. The ingesting of tourists not only outcomes in growing the income of the local population but also makes the prices go up higher.

In conclusion, Since ethnic tourism is skillful of generating such outcomes among host groups, it should more precisely be measured a procedure of ethnic associations. Fresh studies have do argue with rising steadiness that ethnic tourism (alongside with other methods of tourism in general) be abstracted not as a force that is external but with making an impact on a local cultural or ethnic group, but somewhat as a vital part of that local group itself (Jones, G., & Ells, K. (2009). I agree with the article, that it is in such a way that studies in ethnic tourism is at the moment moving. There are certain important questions that remain, however. The article did a good job with showing the fact that the world's ethnic tourists are progressively non-Western, and of course this does raise questions about the prospects of tourist inducements. Chinese ethnic tourists, for instance, seem to be much less concerned with legitimacy than their Western complements; they may also be not as concerned with exoticism as with discovering proof of national steadiness which surpasses ethnic alterations. More fundamentally, study on ethnic tourism has uncovered the exertion of untangling tourism from other procedures of change functioning at global, national and local balances. I agree with that authors concerning the fact that Ethnic tourism can also reduce problematic acknowledged ideas of ethnic and cultural limitations, group identity creation and a host of other concerns that are only now making a name for themselves on the tourism research border.

References:

African tourist encounters: Effects of tourism on two West African societies. (2003). Africa, 73(2), 251-251-289.

Gang, C. (2011). Sustainable development of eco-cultural tourism in remote regions: Lessons learned from southwest china. International Journal of Business Anthropology, 2(1), 123-123-135.

Greathouse Amador, L., M. (1997). Ethnic, cultural, and eco-tourism. The American Behavioral Scientist, 40(7), 936-936-943.

Hiwasaki, L. (2000). Ethnic tourism in Hokkaido and the shaping of Ainu identity. Pacific Affairs, 73(3), 393-393-412.

Jones, G., & Ells, K. (2009). Almost indigenous: Cultural tourism in Acadia and Acadian. Journal of Enterprising Communities, 3(2), 193-193-204. Doi: 10.1108/17506200910960879

Ringer, G. (2002). Gorilla tourism: Uganda uses tourism to recover from decades of violent conflict. Alternatives Journal, 28(4), n/a-n/a.

Robinson, D.W., & Twynam, D. (1996). Alternative tourism, indigenous peoples, and environment: The case of sagarmatha (Everest) national park, Nepal.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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