Essay: Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic

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[. . .] (Cooper, 2000)

Thus the organisms have evolved from these tow basic structures and the organelles and membranous or non-membranous conditions have created different methods of procreation. The principal difference is being the development of the complex nucleus. Now it is pertinent to look into the components of these cells. The eukaryotes developed from a common prokaryotic ancestor along three lines of descent, giving rise to archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts. (Cooper, 2000) The structure of these organisms therefore has similarities and unique structures.

The Structure and Organelles of Cells:

The Eukaryotic cells have a cytoplasm component and it is the space in the cell between the cell wall and encompassing the plasma, membrane and nucleus. The components of the cytoplasm include organelles filaments, particles, and inclusions it is all covered by cytosol that is composed of water, and many ions and amino acids and nucleotides proteins and glucose. The cytoplasm has three subdivisions of function bound membranous organelles that perform designated processes and distinct activities within the cell, causing complex functions to be performed to continue the life and also replicate the cell when necessary. (Kaye, 1997)

The important distinction is that eukaryotic cells are surrounded by plasma membranes and contain ribosomes. They have a nucleus, a variety of cytoplasmic organelles, and a cytoskeleton. This can be seen in plant cells that also have a cell wall, with chloroplasts. The eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells, and are complex with cytoplasmic organelles is what allows eukaryotic cells to function efficiently. They also have Mitochondria, which is used for oxidative metabolism and are thus responsible for generating most of the ATP derived from the breakdown of organic molecules. Eukaryotic cells have the cytoskeleton, a network of protein filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm. (Cooper, 2000)

To achieve the transport of proteins to their correct destinations within the cell a set of cytoplasmic organelles, called the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, function in sorting and transport of proteins destined for "secretion, incorporation into the plasma membrane, and incorporation into lysosomes. The endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive network of intracellular membranes, extending from the nuclear membrane throughout the cytoplasm." (Cooper, 2000)

From the endoplasmic reticulum, proteins are transported within small membrane vesicles to the Golgi apparatus, and to the entire system. Each organelle has one or more compartments and for illustration thee endoplasmic reticulum is a single compartment while the gogi consists of a series of compartments enclosed in membranes each having very distinct biological functions. (Lewin, 2007) The cytoplasm itself is a single compartment that contains all the organelles with all outer surfaces.

The results:

Now it can be shown that the evolution of the cells occurred on complex creation of membranes and organelles that made it possible to create complex organisms. Scientists now have accepted an endsymbiotic origin for these organelles believe that the mitochondria evolved from aerobic bacteria and chloroplasts from photosynthetic bacteria, such as the cyanobacteria. It is thus postulated that the acquisition of aerobic bacteria would have provided an anaerobic cell with the ability to carry out oxidative metabolism. These factors have helped sustain life on earth and evolution as we now know it.

To sum up:

The fundamental unit of life is the cell. The eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells, and are complex with cytoplasmic organelles is what allows eukaryotic cells to function efficiently. The genomes of the Prokaryotic cells are simple, and these cells have no cytoplasm organelles or a cytoskeleton and these differences making them two branches have similarities that are common to both. The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not.


Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer


Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from

Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from

Kaye, Gordon I. (1997) "Histology"

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lewin, Benjamin. (2007) "Cells"


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