Term Paper: Eutrophication Results in the Development of Visible

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Eutrophication results in the development of visible ecosystem in the form of the greening of the water column as a reflection of the vegetation and algae in the context of the coastal areas in response to the nutrient enrichment. One of the extensive obstacle or challenge to the concept of the eutrophication is the uncertainties surrounding dissolved oxygen levels in the bottom water. In the death of the planktonic algae, there is a decrease in the levels of the dissolved oxygen in the bottom. Another aspect of the reduction of the dissolve4d oxygen is the addition of the organic matter to facilitate or fuel respiration of the microbial. There is an occurrence of hypoxia when the dissolved oxygen decreases to below ? 2ml of O2/litre. During this stage, there is a reflection of aberrant behaviour by the benthic fauna. Some of the aberrant behaviours include abandonment of the burrows for the exposure in relation to the sediment-water interface and culmination of the mass mortality with reference to further reduction of the levels of the dissolved oxygen.


Anthropogenic fertilization of the marine systems under the influence of excessive nitrogen is one of the factors essential in the development of numerous ecosystem changes in relation to the levels. There are also natural processes essential in the nutrient enrichment within the context of the continental margins thus vital in the creation of the level changes similar to the anthropogenic fertilization. Oxygen minimum zones occur mostly in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, south Atlantic west of Africa, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal.

Global nature of eutrophication-induced hypoxia

Major population centres and watersheds essential for the provision of large quantities of nutrients are vital in the understanding of the worldwide distribution of the coastal oxygen depletion. In the first aspect of studying these systems, there was no element or concept of hypoxic. During the past century, there is an indication of the concept of hypoxic in relation to the evaluation of the systems. Eutrophication is essential in the realization of adverse effects of the dissolved oxygen levels in the coastal ecosystems. There is an observation that seems to notice the lag of approximately ten years in relation to the increase in the use of the industrial nitrogen fertilizers in the late 1940s. The first observation of the decline in relation to the oxygen levels in the coastal regions was in 1950 in the context of the northern parts of Adriatic Sea.

Despite this notion, there was plenty of evidence of the aspect of localized declines of the dissolved oxygen in the context of Baltic Sea in the early parts of the 20th century. In 1960s, hypoxia became widespread in the coastal areas under the influence of various factors such a decline of the dissolved oxygen levels with reference to the coastal lines across the globe. According to the palco-indicators, hypoxic systems were never recurring events in the ecosystems. Since identification of the system in the 1960s, there is a tendency of doubling in relation to the extent of hypoxic in the coastal regions. There is also a tendency of reluctance in dealing with the systems until manifestation of the effects towards the development of the human beings and other fauna in the context of the coastal area. An essential illustration of this aspect is the case of Kattegat in which hypoxic was never a critical issue until manifestation of the event into critical issues such as influence on fish mortality and collapse of Norway lobster fishery. Some of the effects that lead to the attention of the relevant authority in relation to the manifestations of the systems in the coastal region are the influences on the development and growth of the community members. Several factors contribute to the development or changes in the ecosystem levels thus it is not an outcome on a single event or factor.

Some of the factors leading to the changes of the levels of the ecosystem include overfishing, introduction of invasive species, and eutrophication concept. In the 1990s, there was a significant degree in the level of nutrients. This was essential in the decline of the aspect of hypoxic thus the recovery of the ecosystem services. Despite this massive step towards development and recovery of the ecosystem levels, there is an indication of the increase of the levels of the nutrients thus an illustration of further effects on the levels.

The main factors leading to the increase in the levels of the nutrients is the aspect of the agricultural practices thus eminent increase of the hypoxic within the coastal areas. It is essential to focus on the reduction of the levels of the nutrients with the aim of limiting the changes of the ecosystem levels. The main aspect of achieving this goal or purpose is to keep fertilizers on the land thus limiting the accessibility of the nutrients to the seas. It is also essential for the scientists to focus on the transformation of the agricultural system. This is through adoption and implementation of the agricultural systems or methods capable of closing nutrient cycle from soil to crop and back to the context of the agricultural soil.

Forms of Hypoxia

The common aspect of the eutrophication-induced hypoxia affecting majority of the dead zones occurs once per annum. This occurs during the summer following the spring blooms under the influence of two critical factors. The first essential factor for the occurrence of this form of eutrophication-induced hypoxia is warm water. The second essential factor is the stratification of the water during the summer thus facilitating the development of the changes in the ecosystem levels. This form has the tendency of lasting until autumn.

Microbes in the marine environment

It is essential to name the planet Ocean rather than earth following examination of its components from the space. It is also essential to note that interconnected world bodies cover approximately 70% of the planet. The development and maintenance of several forms of life depend on the past and present events or activities in relation to the marine microbes. Despite this fact, majority of the humanity lives with minimal awareness with reference to the role, diversity, and significance or importance of the marine microbes. There are various types of the marine microbes in the form of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and archaea.

Several modern methods contribute to the evaluation of the evolution of the marine microbes, their lives, and projections of the future developments and influence on the global or ecosystem levels. It is essential to note that marine microbes exist in the aspect of huge numbers thus the formation of major component of the biomass on the planet. Despite the fact that there is a variation in the size of the marine microbes, there is a tendency of the adoption of small size by the organisms. Microbes are major components of marine snow and plankton. Microbes are vital and essential in the sediment formation thus the abundance of life under the seafloor. Marine microbes focus on the colonization of the surface of inanimate objects and other relevant organisms through the concept of the formation of biofilms.

Influence of marine microbiology as a modern area of science

In the study of marine microbiology, it is essential to focus on various concepts and components such as the diversity of the organisms in the sea, role of the microbes in the ocean process, importance to human beings, and interactions of the marine microbes with other living organisms. Various developments indicate the crucial roles of the microbes in relation to growth and development of the humanity. The microbes also play critical roles in the maintenance of the activities of the planet. Despite this essence of importance of the microbes in the growth and development of the humanity, there are various challenges or obstacles to the development of the living organisms. Some of these factors include rapid increase in the human population, overfishing, exploitation of the fisheries, changes in the climatic conditions, acidification of the oceans, and pollution of the marine through wastes from the industries.

Microbial process in shaping the living world

The most overriding features in relation to evaluation of the features of the marine microbes include the exceptional diversity and capacity to occupy conceivable habitat for the life. Bacteria and archaea have contributed to the subsequent development and shaping of the planet since their first appearance or evaluation. This is through execution of the metabolic in the transformation of the elements, degradation of the organic matter, and recycling of the nutrients. These activities play critical role in the development and maintenance of all forms of life. It is also essential to note the role of the microbe activities in influencing the physical and geochemical properties of the planet. This is an indication that the microbes play critical role in the realization of vital planet changes in relation to composition of the atmosphere, oceans, rocks, and soil.

This is relevant towards the consideration of the marine environment with reference to the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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