Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

Pages: 4 (1097 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated that the contents of consciousness are determined in a top-down means depending on the task that the individual is engaged upon. Together with his colleagues, the psychologists examined simple tasks though they favored more complex tasks that were mainly based on mental acts like recognizing, attending, willing, and discriminating.

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In the first two decades of the 20th Century, introspectionism approach went into a terminal decline through the various unresolved disagreements in the two schools of this approach. During this period, the introspectionists increased complex classifications of conscious experience despite of the declining interests in consciousness.

Gestalt psychology:

Research Paper on Evolution of Cognitive Psychology a Assignment

The seeming failure and decline in introspectionism stimulated several reactions by various intellectuals such as gestalt psychologists developed the work of Kulpe or Wurzburg school by stating that consciousness cannot be examined into minor components sensations. These psychologists stressed the significance of perception of stimulus that patterns people's conscious experience.

These works were also accompanied by the attempts by William James to oppose introspectionism through his functionalist psychology. The psychologist affirmed that the various ways of humans' feelings and thinking are products of people's utility in developing their interactions with the outside world. In addition to being regarded as an exponent of modern evolutionary psychology, James considered these functions of the mind as the suitable subject matter in psychology. Nonetheless, these ideas were quickly and largely brushed off by the emergence of a new thought in the United States known as behaviorism.

Behaviorism:

While this approach contributed to the terminal decline of Gestalt and functionalist psychology, the basis of behaviorism was not shared in common since its founders were driven by divergent motives. The main founder of behaviorism focused on moving psychological research from the laboratory and into the real world. Through public observation, behaviorism reflected a broad philosophical consensus as the actual nature of scientific analysis. As various psychologists become dissatisfied with the emphasis on external behavior by behaviorism, cognitive psychology developed to focus on internal processes.

Conclusion:

Cognitive psychology has developed as a discipline in the field of psychology through various antecedents instead of a specific event. Some of the major antecedents that contributed to the evolution of the discipline include introspectionism, Gestalt psychology, and behaviorism.

References:

Braisby, N. & Gellatly, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Foundations of Cognitive Psychology. Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199273768/ch01.pdf

McLeod, S. (2007). Cognitive Psychology. Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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