Exciting About Video Games Thesis

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[. . .] Meta-analysis however has its limitations which include factors such as the researchers selecting their included studies (therefore incorporating bias to a certain degree), excluding others that they may not be aware of and/or that come from sources that they do not necessarily recognize that may be just as authoritative such as dissertations), and including faulty studies. To that point, Ferguson et al. (2008) did not seem too particular regarding the studies that they chose. They also only included a relatively small amount of studies as well as focused on sub-analysis which does not obtain a good chance for results. Most importantly, meta-analytic studies may just show association. They certainly cannot conclude that there is a casualty.

Some observers (e.g. (Ferguson, 2007, Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009) hypothesis that publication bias may have over-exaggerated some of the results of severity of the games and that this bias influenced the conditions and factors of the research (e.g. subject audience chocsen, speficifgs of games palyed, and other factors of the context) resulting in subjective outcome. These studies accordingly decided only to select studies that pandered to their choice, rejected studies that had been published before a certain date, overlooked others, and misinterpreted those that they finally selected.

Other studies have also yielded null effects.

Moreover, some critics claim -- in an interesting argument -- that the whole issue of video game inducing aggression is not only exaggerated but also one-sided. What about all the good that comes from the movies? And these critics (such as Ferguson (2010)) claim that a huge amount of good can, paradoxically, initiate from violent video game playing and it can be seen as an educational tool. How? In that skills such as visuo-spatial cognition and social involvement can be obtained.

To that end, Ferguson 92010) and colleagues argue that social observers should take into account not only the negative ramifications of violent video games but also the positive effects.

For all these reasons and more, critics have therefore decided that the issue is undecided. This is reinforced by the public's disinclination (on the whole) to accept conclusions of research criticizing aggression of video games due either to reasons of self-interest and identity or due to the fear that the ramifications of the research may threaten freedom of expression. The outcome of research -- if it is to be expected -- promises to be controversial.

Variables Involved in Violent Video Games

As stated before, reason for the mixed results of the research may be due to the complexity of undertaking research on this variable in the first place and that examining these variables may reduce the controversy granted by ramifications since social activities can control one or more of these effecting factors. Various mechanisms are involved in producing outcome of the game including characteristics of the player of the game, characteristics of the subject pool, duration that game is played, and characteristic so the experiment (location, interviewer bias, interviewer qualities) and so forth.

One of the variables is the fact that cultural characteristics may also influence results that games have on users. A country for instance that demonstrates more stress may inspire more stress in users and, therefore, evoke more violence. To the same reason, a country that indicates a great amount of violence on a regular standard may have user being more vulnerable to the aggressive-impacts of the game. The influence will be different on a teenager who lives in a more affluential, calm country. Poverty to may evoke different effect from the user. For these and various other reasons, culture may play a huge impact in the results that the game has on the user. This can be seen, for instance, from the fact that the context of violence on Japanese anime videos (or others) is different than that shown on U.S. media even though the total amount is similar. Japanese TV tends to portray violence in a more graphic way but it also shows the results more clearly on the victim exacerbating victim suffering. This may explain although not necessarily) explain why violence is less in Japan than it is in USA where there is less focus on victim suffering.)

As stated, the meta-analytic study conducted by Sherry (2001) indicated that video games do have an impact on violent behavior, but this impact is small and far smaller than the impact TV has on behavior and thought. They further discovered that human and fantasy-simulated video games have a greater impact on violence than sports-violent games have. Paradoxically, it seems that the longer the game is played the less impact it has on the violence of the user. This may be due to the result that short-played games have a greater intensity.

Other meta-analytic studies (such as Anderson, 2004; Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Anderson et al., 2004; Sherry, 2001), however, came up with more significant and positive results showing a clear positive association between video games and violence. Each of these met analysis / literature reviews considered both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and are therefore quite responsible in their qualities. All, without exception, showed that exposure to violent video games is associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and physiological arousal and with lower levels of prosocial behavior. These, however, reversed the findings of Sherry (2001), discovering that not only did video games have a significant impact on violence but that, many times, this influence exceeded that of violent TV shows and violent films. This may be due precisely to the fact that, as the quotation preceding this essay notes, users are psychologically and emotionally involved in the game. They are in it and therefore absorbing the behavior as opposed to TV and movies where viewers are merely watching it. The more experiential and visceral presence may have a stronger impact and more immediate impact on user. The difference, in short, is between viewer and user. Another variable, therefore, that it would be worthwhile to study would be whether the duration of the game and the amount that the user is involved in it corresponds with violence on part of user.

Another factor that may instigate aggression is whether the game is being played amongst oneself (solely) or with others. Shafer (2012) too discovered that outcome of game, competitive situation, and genre all factor into producing aggression. Where players played collaboratively (against the environment for instance), less aggression as the result than when players played against one another. The style of playing, too, therefore is another factor that must be factored into the equation.

Similarly too is the intensity of sensory realism cues that are a marked feature of violent video games. There is the blood color, screams of pain, and player's perspective -- all of these affect the players' physiological arousal and sate of aggression. The more realistic the blood color and screams, the more the person was aroused. Accordingly, realism of game is another determining variable (Jeong et al., 2012)

Age of user too is uncertain. Studies (Anderson, 2010) unilaterally found no difference between the gender of the user (violence of the game has an equal effect on both). However, the effect of the game on the age of the user is uncertain. It could be premised that the younger the user, the more vulnerable he or she is to the content, but this is unclear (Huesmann, Moise, Podolski, & Eron, 2003). It needs longitudinal research to measure this, and video games are still too recent a product.

A very good question -- and another variable to consider - is why violent video games produce the outcome that they do. This was the research question of Hasan et al. (2012), and they concluded that video game violence increases the hostile expectation bias (i.e. Expectation of hostility) which, in turn, increases aggression. Wouldn't some be more susceptible to this than others? Indeed, the researchers found that men were more prone to the hostile expectation bias than women. But wouldn't it depend too on a specific personality? On experiences of that personality? On the degree to which they take the game seriously? On the country that they come from? On conditions in their own life (as for instance some may have a harsher life than others in which case they may be more likely to distrust others, more competitive, and more vulnerable to the hostile expectation bias? Each of these are good questions that determine the impact that the game will have on the user. Considering these variables means that some users will be more prone to impact of the video game than others. It may, therefore, be that singling out certain factors would be a more valuable approach to take than banning video games altogether (see also Englehardt et l (2012) who showed that different behaviors of players can cause different results despite violent content of the game). With this approach, social workers would know what to look out for whilst activists and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Exciting About Video Games.  (2013, January 3).  Retrieved February 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/exciting-video-games/7992437

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