Term Paper: Exercise Philosophy When Rio

Pages: 6 (2367 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] If one was to apply the principles of Adams, Keele and Schmidt, a new training and physical education program would incorporate the short-term benefits of practicing, visualization and build in more long-term benefits like specific practice strategies. For example, if new soccer players desiring to reach the skill set of a Pele wanted to learn three new soccer skills such as bouncing a soccer ball between the knees and never letting the ball hit the ground, bouncing the ball on the forehead and also never letting it hit the ground, and of course using Pele's world famous flipping scissor kick, they may have to typically practice in a well defined block fashion where they focus exclusively on each specific skill until it is fully learned. Proficiency levels could be created as more children acquire the skills so as to be able to compare if a student has a high school equivalent or if he or she will be playing in the next World Cup.

On the other hand, if students of the 'Pele way' were going to utilize the more modern approaches from the 1990's, the 'motor learning research' approach, they would use a completely different approach to acquiring those new motor skills. In this scenario, they would use practice sessions that were more random in fashion and that is thought to produce more long lasting and long-term retention outcomes. The idea of 'contextual interference' therefore implies that practicing all three of the desired Pele skills, bouncing the ball between the knees, bouncing the ball on the forehead and the flipping scissor kick, simultaneously, each of the three skills together would create a situation of short-term degradation of the performance skills when compared to the before mentioned blocked practice. However, over the course of time, the new soccer players would actually be better at applying their new three skills and therefore would be able to perform the required movements at a higher and more consistent level than those soccer players that learned their motor skills in blocked schedules of time.

Some of the statistics about Pele's career show that he was amazing. He scored over 1200 goals over his 15-year career and that would equate to a professional baseball player here in America hitting seventy or more home runs for fifteen consecutive years or, since the Yankees just became champions, hitting a home run in every single World Series game over that 15-year career. The translation is simple. Pele had a unique set of motor skills that he and he alone was able to develop. Of course he had help from coaches, peers and fans, but the bulk of the hard work was attained by him. "Just one year later after he joined Santos, he became the youngest player to start in the Brazilian first division at age 16 and even more incredibly, he became league top scorer at the end of the season! Talk about starting with the right foot." (Soccer fans Info).

Whatever learning style he used to acquire these gifts is the foundation for greater essays than this one. He obviously would make an ideal study case and model to demonstrate the best way to transmit information to learners. He, better than any other soccer player, would be able to provide the demonstrations of the movement skills needed to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills by new players of the game. Pele would easily serve to show how he himself learned a particular motor skill, how he received and applied the feedback, and then how he applied the feedback to perfecting the movement.


In conclusion, this paper discussed the application of feedback and the acquiring of new athletic skills though motor learning as it applies to sports. There is no better example of a perfect motor skills application in the world of soccer than the great one, Pele. In 1977, Pele played in his final professional game that was actually an exhibition game between the United States New York Cosmos and the world champion Brazilian Santos. Pele had played for both teams during his career so in this particular game he played the first half with the Cosmos and the second half with Santos. That was the end of a great soccer career. But it was also an opportunity to see how this great athlete was able to apply and translate the concepts of augmented extrinsic feedback and intrinsic sensory information feedback to his objective of playing soccer better than anyone else in the world.


Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.

Keele, Steven W. (1968). "Movement Control in Skilled Motor Performance." Psychological Bulletin 70:387-403.

Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.

Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.

Schmidt, Richard A. (1975). "A Schema Theory of Discrete Motor Skill Learning." Psychological Review 82:225-260.

Soccer Fans Info. (2009). "Biography of Pele." Retrieved on November 10, 2009, from http://www.soccer-fans-info.com/biography-of-pele.html.

Woodworth, Robert S.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Exercise Philosophy When Rio.  (2009, November 11).  Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/exercise-philosophy-rio-de/47385

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"Exercise Philosophy When Rio."  Essaytown.com.  November 11, 2009.  Accessed July 22, 2019.