Existence of God for Years Essay

Pages: 7 (2319 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Mythology - Religion

Existence of God for years has been the most debated topic. Many philosophers, scientists and theologians have presented their views about the existence of God and provided proofs to validate their theories and beliefs in this regard (Existence of God, 2004). Without the evidences all arguments and theories shall be rendered useless due to lack of generalization. It would be more of a subjective argument, pertaining to one's own concepts and beliefs, rather than an objective one. Knowledge about the God's existence according to epistemology differs from a mere belief about it, by justifications and verifiable evidences that help in the identification of truth and reality. However, if no conclusions can be derived from scientific or non-scientific approaches and no proofs or evidences are found then it simply indicates that the existence of God is not a question that could scientifically be proven.

Arguments

There exist a number of arguments that support or refute the view that God exists. All these arguments are different aspects of a worldview and each of these appear as the most important aspect compared to the others.

Empirical Argument

The empirical argument includes Aquinas Five Ways, Quinque viae, by the theologian Thomas Aquinas. Gracyk (2004) in his article states that Aquinas's argument does not provide self sufficient evidences to prove that God exists but to give an introduction to God without any involvement of religious experiences. The first and the foremost way is the Unmoved Mover argument, according to which some things are always in motion according to human senses as the potential motion becomes actual motion. A potential motion cannot be converted to actual motion itself; that is nothing can move because of its independent forces. Something else therefore having actual motion helps in the conversion of potential motion. From this it is derived that there exists a first mover, that has not been moved by anything else and this is whom everyone refers to as God.

The second way is the Efficient Causes argument, according to which nothing in this world exists prior to itself, that is everything that happens has a cause. Without the cause the resultant wouldn't happen. For this reason in a series of happenings if the first thing does not happen or the cause for the other things is series does not exist then nothing exists in that entire series. Therefore, people admit that the first efficient cause is God.

The third way is the Necessity and Possibility argument, which claims that all beings are contingent that there is a possibility that they may not exist. At some point in time when nothing may have existed and nothing could possibly bring into existence the contingent beings today. From this it is derived that not all beings are contingent that is there should exist something that exists of its own necessity and is the cause for the existence of every other being (Gracyk, 2004). Such a being is regarded as the God.

The fourth way is the Gradation of Being argument, according to which everything and every being in this world can be sorted into grades. Some may be better while others may be worse (Gracyk, 2004). The highest degree of grades can be predicted only if there exists a reference point. Comparing to the reference anything less than that maximum grade is graded less. In this world, people refer to the most perfect and symbol of goodness as God.

The last and the fifth way is Design argument, which argues that it is not by chance that every natural being fights towards a goal. Every natural being does not have the knowledge to decide the goals and targets for itself. They are like an arrow that is directed towards the target by the archer, but if left on its own the arrow does not have any target and does not even move in its direction (Gracyk, 2004). Therefore, there exists a body which directs all these natural beings towards their targets. This natural body is regarded as God.

Deductive Argument

The ontological arguments are based mainly on the a priori reasoning and not on empirical evidences. There are certain claims that exist in this world, whose existence never requires even a second thought because their reality is an established fact. For instance saying a triangle with four sides, without even thinking one can declare the claim to be false. Similarly, existence of God is not even a question that requires justification for verification. The concept that God does not exist is too absurd to be accepted by human minds. The foundation of these deductive arguments is the following premises:

The only greatest conceivable being is the God

To exist is greater than to not exist

From the first two premises it is logical to derive that God exists.

Subjective Arguments

These arguments are the results of individual beliefs held by the followers of various religions. It is based on an individual's experiences and beliefs and cannot be generalized as being the only argument for the existence of God.

In Christianity and Judaism, the existence of God was experienced at a specific point in history especially at Exodus and gave the Ten Commandments to the Israeli tribes. This was witnessed by a number of people, validating God's existence. Resurrection of Jesus is an Christological argument that provides sufficient evidence to support the claim that Jesus is the son of God, hence indicating the existence of God.

The Mormonism which is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints emphasizes on the miracles of God, the angels and Jesus Christ to be sufficient to establish the claim in favor of Gods existence.

In Islam, the revelation of the Holy Book, the Quran, supports the 'divine authorship' and points towards the fact that God exists.

The witness argument depends on the witness by individuals and on the testimony of the supernatural happenings that verify the existence of God. The existence is also demonstrated by the majority argument according to which theism of people is present in the past as well as today therefore there has to be something which is keeping their faith alive and that the majority cannot be wrong. The being to whom the worship and the reverence is due is common among the people of all times.

Conscience Argument

An individual's conscience has greater authority over the person and it defines the obligations (Kreeft, 1994). The conscience is not affected by anything less than the individual that exists in nature or anything equal to him. Because in either case the individual would not want to be directed by the conscience, that is influenced by sources less than or equal to the individual. Therefore, their need to exist a superior being which when directs the conscience, the individual considers it as a source of moral obligation.

The strongest argument of all is that in which individuals bear witness to the existence of God that is the individuals being the witness of miracles, Holy Book, Jesus and the Angels. The subjective arguments or arguments through experience are the result of human reasoning and Gods superiority and most importantly His existence is visible clearly in the things He has created. Empirical argument cannot be regarded as the strongest because if the premises cannot be tested the argument shall be refuted. Whereas, the ontological argument may be proven false if the facts are criticized which have been established to be true?

Foundation of Universe

Religious cosmology explains the origin, history and the evolutionary process of the universe on the basis of religious mythology. The world is dealt as totality of all the phenomena, space and time (Cosmology, n.d.). Creationism is the myths of creation that says that the life, the planet Earth and the entire universe is created by some supernatural being. Creationists do not believe in the scientific theories of evolution as these cannot account for the complexity of life and the history of the earth. According to Emanations the universe is derived from the First Reality which is a symbol of perfection, God. As the universe is created it has descending perfection and at each step the emanating beings are less pure, less divine and less perfect. Pantheism is a belief that everything in the universe is created by God and that this universe is the God itself.

Moral Values and God

With the existence of God the moral values and accountability is secured whereas if God did not exist morality would just be a concept created by the people and would be a subjective matter where everybody would have their own explanation for the right and for the wrong. The actions of people are dependent on their personal values and have no standard with which they can compare themselves. In the absence of God there exists no objectivity in value system and everybody is permitted to do everything that they feel is right. The fear that everyone is being observed by God would keep the actions well within ethical and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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