Existence and Use of Mainstream and Classical Motivation Theories in the Turkish Businesses Multiple Chapters

Pages: 30 (7892 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology

Motivation Theories in Turkey Textile Tactics

Motivation Theories

turkey textile tactics

The News Reports

Area of Study

Organization of Study

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Self-Perception Theory

Goal Setting Theory

Motivation in Factories

Potential for Pursuing Empirical Research


Discussion of Results in relation to Objectives.

Discussion of those in relation to Survey Results

Discussion of these in relation to the Theory.

Discussion of Interviews


Four Components of Empirical Research

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Conditions Affecting Goal Effectiveness

Table 2: Maslow's Hierarchy and Descriptions of Needs



"Turkey's textile industry, which began in small shops in 1960,

has rapidly evolved and transformed Turkey into a global competitor"

("Turkey exports 20 bln…" 2010 ¶ 8).

The News Reports

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The news report, "Turkey exports 20 bln USD in textile, clothing in 2009" (2010) stresses that during the past two decades, the textile and clothing sector comprises the primary foundation of the Turkish economy. The Turkish textile industry, which began in modest shops in 1960, rapidly developed and transitioned Turkey into a global competitor. Currently, Turkey's textile industry constitutes a significant role in the process of industrialization in the country as well as the economy's market orientation. During 2009, Turkey's textile and clothing exports totaled 20 billion USD. Additional noteworthy points relating to Turkey's clothing and textile industries include the following:

TOPIC: Multiple Chapters on Existence and Use of Mainstream and Classical Motivation Theories in the Turkish Businesses Assignment

Turkey's textile exports totaled approximately six billion dollars in 2009; potentially making Turkey's exports more than 20 billion dollars.

In February 2010, compared with the corresponding period during 2009, textile exports increased 29% to 477.5 million dollars ("Turkey exports 20 bln…" 2010).

Area of Study

In Turkey, as in numerous developing countries, small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) primarily comprise the textile sector. According to Faith Savasan and Friedrich Schneider (2006) in the working paper, "What determines informal Hiring? Evidence from the Turkish Textile Sector: Approximately 67% of the textile firms in Turkey have relatives among owners. This factor contributes to "informal hiring" practices, which when detected, routinely receive government fines. The greatest determinants relating to informal hiring in this sector include "competition, skill level of employees, high premiums, and penalty rate" (Savasan and Schneider 17). Determinants that motivate Turkish textile firms to hire employees informally also include the facts the sector is comparatively labor intensive while shadow economy activities prove higher.

Rationale for the Study

The rationale for the study naturally evolved from the researcher's previous part-time work in textile factories throughout the past five-year. The adaptation process for countries to comply with the EU criterion, conjoined with the Eurasia considerations contributing to contemporary economic issues stimulated the researcher's interest as to whether Turkish businesses could or rather would use mainstream/classical theories in their workplaces or continue to operate their business ventures the old fashioned way. (Needs confirming/additional)

Significance of the Study

Turkey, a relatively fast growing country, averages approximately 10-15% economic growth per year (***need source) a year with numerous foreign investors heavily existent in various Turkish markets. The study currently proves significant and will likely become more critical in the near future as increased growth in Turkey's textile factories will mandate that the number of factory workers will simultaneously increase. (Needs confirming/additional)

Organization of Study

Studies like the present study, utilizing empirical research methodology, present data/information, divided into the following five chapter divisions.

I. Introduction,

II. Literature Review

III. Methodology

IV. Analysis

V. Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations ("What is…" 2006).


The hypothesis for the study asserts: When the Turkish textile plant utilizes the classical theory of Maslow's Hierarchy to implement practices to help ensure the needs of the employees are met, then the organization will more likely motivate employees to better perform their responsibilities; in turn enhancing the success of the textile plant.

Research Questions

The primary research question for the study queries: How can the utilization of the classical theory of Maslow's Hierarchy by the Turkish textile plant to implement practices to help ensure the needs of the employees are met help the organization become more likely to motivate employees to better perform their responsibilities; in turn enhancing the success of the textile plant?

Sub-research question to support the primary research question and also contribute to determining the validity of the hypothesis include:

1. How does Maslow's Hierarchy of needs theory compare to other motivational theories?

2. What issues/challenges do factories and factory workers routinely experience that can influence production as well as the factory and the worker's success?

3. How may factory leaders motivate employees to better perform their responsibilities?


During the second chapter of the study, the review of literature, the research, in a sense similar to the Turkish textile industry, begin in small steps to rapidly evolve into a worthy contributor of information worthy of global interest.



"From an organizational perspective, a leader must have an ability to motivate employees and inspire them to become followers.

Motivation, on the other hand, is the process of arousing and sustaining the goal directed behaviour of the people"

(Jagirdar 2010 ¶ 8)


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The theory Abraham H. Maslow (1908 -- 1970), psychologist, developed, known as "Maslow's hierarchy of needs," depicts a theory of motivation and personality and explains human behavior relating to requisites essential for a person to survive and grow. Arranged according to their significance for survival as well as their ability to motivate the individual, these requirements or needs, often reflected as a pyramid, reveal the hierarchy of needs "with physical survival needs located at the base of the pyramid and needs for self-actualization located at the top" ("Maslow's Hierarchy…" 2006, Definition Section, ¶ 1). Although food, water, and oxygen, the most basic physical requirements, comprise the lowest level of the need hierarchy, they possess massive motivational power to motivate persons. These needs have to be fulfilled prior the person deems other, higher needs as significant. Formal education and life experiences stimulate the pursuit of those higher level hierarchy needs, which aim less towards physical survival and more toward the individual's psychological well-being and growth.

According to Maslow, numerous other needs, like aesthetic needs which include beauty and order, and also cognitive needs like curiosity and scientific interest exist outside his hierarchy. In addition, Maslow discovered that a range of needs he identified as transcendence needs or B-values extend beyond self-actualization. Transcendence needs, excluded in most Maslow's needs hierarchy formulations typically depict those needs beyond the need for self-actualization. They reflect they person's needs to contribute to human welfare and to also to discover higher meanings in life ("Maslow's Hierarchy…" 2006).

As Maslow allocated for some departures from the strict order of his needs hierarchy, he noted that total satisfaction of a particular need may not be necessary or possible. This indicates that the lower needs had to be reasonably well satisfied for the individual to focus on higher needs. The majority of people, for instance, would reveal a range of need satisfaction levels at various times. In some scenarios, Maslow asserts, in favor of higher needs being fulfilled, a person's lower needs might be ignored like an artist forfeiting comfort and security to pursue his/her artistic goals, or a student delaying his/her search to connect with a romantic partner to earn high grades and gain admission into a prestigious graduate program. These type departures from a strict hierarchy, albeit, Maslow stressed, did not nullify his basic theory ("Maslow's Hierarchy…" 2006).

In the article, "Super models: In a series of articles examining learning models…," Mike Clayton (2008), founder of Thoughtscape, an organizations which coaches, trains and facilitates leaders, explains that in a seminal 1943 paper, Maslow further developed Henry Murray's Theory of Needs into what has become known as Maslowe's Hierarchy. Some criticize Maslow's work due to the weakness inherent in his research base. This criticism evolved as the foundation of Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory. This theory asserts that existence, relatedness and growth constitute an individual's three basic needs. Nevertheless, Maslow's primary place in motivation theory remains staid and additionally connects with the work of Herzberg.

The report, "Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler: With Predictions of His Future Behavior and Suggestions for Dealing with Him Now and After Germany's Surrender," relates the examination Henry. Murray (1943), then pre-war Director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic, conducted of Hitler's personality. Murray's work "established personality psychology as a behavioral science. Murray explored a theory of personality in which the interplay of 20 psychogenic needs of varying strength produced distinct personality types" (Murray, Introduction, ¶ 2). Murray determined Hitler's personality type, counteractive narcism, included characteristics like compulsive criminality. A tendency to belittle, blame, and bully other individuals; inability to take a joke, desirous for revenge, extreme demands for attention, holding grudges, inability to express gratitude, low tolerance for criticism, persistence in the face of defeat, and intense self-will/self-trust. Hitler, Murray concluded through the language of needs theory he developed, possessed these characteristics and a number of others to an extreme degree, yet did not possess any offsetting qualities… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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