Home  >  Subjects  >  Sports / Exercise / Fitness  >  current page My Profile

Facilities Management CritiquesArticle Critique

Pages: 7 (2747 words)  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

Custom Writing

¶ … Job Competencies of Sport Facility Managers: Robert Case and J. David Branch

The study by Case & Branch (2003) talks about sports facilities that exist in the United States and offers different careers for students to opt from. The study states that the sports management training prepares students for professional management. However, it is also imperative that this training also includes courses that are effective and important in the training and education of the future managers. The study uses the quantitative method of research and uses surveys as the tool of research method. The researchers randomly selected 200 sport facility directors and mailed them the questionnaire. The respondents were asked to rate the statements from a score of 1-5. The questions being explored were the identification of the job competencies that were determined to be important for upper level, and first or entry level sport facility managers. A second goal was to examine the demographic variables that were selected and were linked to the managers.

A research study by Alsop & Fuller (2001) addressed the same topic but with a different audience. The research chose respondents from universities and colleges and determined that a lot of professional programs are being offered at the undergraduate level. The research study also stated the variety of careers identified by the programs. Another research study, by Agarwal, Yocum & Case (2000) stated that sports facilities have the potential to manage and arrange large sports events, and a lot of facilities do so as well. The impact of sports facilities on the economy is towards positive economic growth, because people from around the country and world participate as competitors and spectators. The importance of the coursework content area was examined by Ulrich & Parkhouse (1982), who studied sport management alumni's attitude towards the importance of the coursework content areas; the highest rated courses were communications, public relations (PR), internship experience, facility management, management principles, and current-day sport(s) issues. Williams & Miller (1983) also examined the responsibilities in a job of the athletic directors and the college level.

The research by Case and Branch (2003) used quantitative methodology; the survey method was used. 200 sports directors were selected randomly. The two hundred subjects were mailed a questionnaire that included 100 statements that were to be rated on a 'Likert-type scale' that ranged from 1-unneccessary, 2-questionable, 3-average important, 4-very important and 5-essential. 108 out of 200 facility directors responded, to yield a 54% response rate. The statements in the survey were developed after reviewing the research and recommendations of the previous research done on the topic, as well as by the expert jury of the sport facility management. Before the final survey, a pilot instrument was created that tested the statements. The data was analyzed by using SAS 8.00 System for Windows. For the demographic variables, descriptive statistics (x+SE, 95% CI, percentages) was used while the exploratory factor was used to test the data structure. The amount of retained factors was done by the Cattell screen test.

There was a 54% response rate to the survey, in which the average respondent was a male, aged 44 years, with an annual salary of more than seventy thousand dollars. The generalized average respondent had a business baccalaureate degree and fifteen years of experience. The research's first finding indicates that there is a need to provide more emphasis to oral and written communication skills in sport managers' training. Secondly the competencies that were identified are linked with undergraduate and graduate standards. Thirdly, the results support the differences between the upper and entry level position of management. Fourthly, seven factors were covered by the exploratory factor, which explained 58% of entry level and 52% of upper level competencies. Fifth, specific competencies were analyzed by factor analysis, which might provide a bridge for the undergraduate and graduate level curriculum. Furthermore, the demographic information collected stated that the directors were well established and lastly, different trends showed high factors of seating facilities.

The main purpose of the study was to identify the competencies for the first and upper level sport managers and to examine the demographic variables. Survey method was used in which 200 respondents were randomly selected out of which 108 responded with a rate of 54%. The top rated competencies included personal evaluation skills, understanding legal issues, problem solving, goal setting, decision making, and ability to delegate, setting priorities, communication skills and budgeting. The top rated competencies included oral and written communication skills, risk and time management, decision making, problem solving, computer knowledge and recognizing the safety hazards.

Measurement and Management of the Sportscape: Kirk L. Wakefield, Jeffery G. Blodgett and Hugh J. Sloan

Owners of sports teams have become aware of the fact that they need proper facilities to maintain and increase the satisfaction of spectators in the sports events. This study, by Wakefield et al. (1996) used the quantitative method, in which survey (a) were used to obtain the response of the subjects. The survey was provided to sports facility managers to examine how their facility is perceived by the spectators. The research question that was being examined was how the spectators view the facilities of the sports managers (Wakefield, Blodgett, & Sloan, 1996).

Bitner (1992) in his study identified 3 dimensions of the servicescape which influenced the perceptions of the customers. The dimensions he identified included: artifacts, symbols and signs; functionality and spatial layout; and ambient conditions. According to Brauer (1992), the design and layout of the interior included the interior design; decorative standards; furnishing specifications; and furniture and layout plans. The work of Bitner (1992), and Snodgrass, Russell & Ward (1988) stated that the people would either leave early or not come to the stadium at all, if the interior is not well made. The spectators who would leave the stadium due to different reasons could result in negative results for the stadium and sports events. The sales would be less and there would be fewer souvenirs sold when looking from the managements' point-of-view. Furthermore, the spectators would not be pleased concerning their choices between avoiding the traffic and staying in the stadium. Bateson & Hui (1992) states that the people feel frustrated when they have little choice as the facility might only include confined or stuffy spaces. This insufficient space might result in a crowded place that also surfaces problems for the spectators.

The survey method was used to collect responses from the subjects; this was developed by the author's experience with a variety of minor and major stadiums. Different scales were used for pretesting, which was done in two major league football games. 150 surveys were distributed randomly with a 45% response rate. Reliability and factor analysis were used to refine and access the scales after pretesting.

After the confirmation of measurement model, the structural model was made which included the hypothesized link between the dependent constructs and explanatory variables. The results showed that the important factor that affected the pleasure of the spectators is the available personal space in the stadium, and the extent to which it seemed cramped and/or crowded. When people were sitting cramped together, it made it difficult for them to enjoy the game. It also became difficult for them to go to the restrooms or reach for snacks, which made them uncomfortable. The results also indicated that the spectators develop negative feelings. These might be decreased by placing large monitors to enhance spectator viewing in different areas of the stadium. They might feel crowded still but at least they would be able to view the game more closely.

Concluding the study, the atmosphere of the sportscape lead to increased derived pleasure for the spectators and brought forward ideas to change the facilities. This effect was stronger in baseball stadiums as compared with the football stadiums. The presence of superior facilities might help to build and maintain attendance in order to help the spectators stay longer. Coaching and fielding also helps to draw the spectators but improving the facility is more important.

C. Toxicological Assessment of Coated vs. Uncoated Rubber Granulates Obtained from Used Tires for Use in Sport Facilities

This research study used the qualitative method and applied different laboratory assessment tests. It aimed to address issues related towards environmental assessment and experimental toxicology concerning sports facilities. In particular, the study evaluated the environment and the emissions obtained in terms of Eco toxicity for non-coated and coated rubber granulates, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

A study stated that the processes that were available consisted of the rubber granulate production by shredding tires mechanically; this can also be done through the cryogenic technique. This process was explained in another study which states that the cryogenic technique does not thermally or chemically destroy the chains of molecules or their condition of vulcanization. So the cryogenically treated rubber that is obtained gives different advantages over the ones that are obtained mechanically as they do not go through thermal degradation because of their high elastic behavior.

Different assessments were carried out… [END OF PREVIEW]

Download Full Paper (7 pages; perfectly formatted; Microsoft Word file) Microsoft Word File

Managing a Health Care Facility


Managing Homeland Security


Applied Management and Decision Sciences


International Operations Management Strategy of Boeing Company


Project Management Strategies Used for the Sydney


View 241 other related papers  >>

Cite This Paper:

APA Format

Facilities Management Critiques.  (2015, July 31).  Retrieved September 23, 2017, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/facilities-management-critiques/8729294

MLA Format

"Facilities Management Critiques."  31 July 2015.  Web.  23 September 2017. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/facilities-management-critiques/8729294>.

Chicago Format

"Facilities Management Critiques."  Essaytown.com.  July 31, 2015.  Accessed September 23, 2017.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/facilities-management-critiques/8729294.

Disclaimer