Feminist Scholars Such as Cixous, Foss Term Paper

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¶ … feminist scholars such as Cixous, Foss and Griffin, Fraser, Anzaldua, and the authors of the essays in the hip hop feminism anthology, rethought rhetorical concepts?

Feminism is a concept that makes even those persons thought to be practicing it to feel uncomfortable. However, when it goes beyond academics, feminists are mistaken to Feminazis and defenders of political correctness. The truth of the matter is that even though one may refute with several of the political feminist theorists supporters, if you experienced a similar politicization of rhetoric with theorists such as, Cixous, Foss and Griffin, Fraser, Anzaldua among others, then you perhaps experience a similar thing that scholars and feminists rhetoricians encounter. Most of the scholars and theorists discussed on class have a broader agenda that concentrates on epistemic nature and our rhetoric and the coercion of the various classes within it. For that reason, theorists such as Cixous, Foss and Griffin, Fraser, Anzaldua tries to answer the very difficult questions that appears controversial and rhetoric in our studies.

In thinking about rhetorical concepts, these theorists wonders why the voice of women is historically absent in a tradition of rhetoric that spans over two thousand years. It is unclear whether lack of education forbids women into discourse community, or the women's way of perception, communicating and interaction that makes it difficult for women get an opportunity of addressing such issues. Theorist's attempts to address the feminist issue based on their pluralists roots and the critiques they offer are extremely different. For instance, ecological theorists draw on earth cultures and natural preservations; social feminists discloses on issues, such as oppression, economic inequity and non-hierarchical sharing and finally, opinionated feminists support experimental studies of local narratives located at the boarders of the society as the biggest players that forbids women from uttering anything in the discourse community.

However, the modern feminists object the dichotomous technique used by the essentialist feminists that claim that language is gender-based. In addition, these theorists claim that the legal system adapted by a particular society plays a larger role in blocking women maker utterances in the community. Foss & Griffin (1997, Pg.118) makes it clear that, "Feminist perspectives are numerous, not easily categorized, and not mutually exclusive." In their individual capacities, these theorists have a common agenda of identifying what constitutes gender and what it mean for the rights of women. However, the differences and disparities caused by the various pluralists' roots have minimized the effect of feminism on rhetorical theory and the criticism of public sphere. Furthermore, the diversity of these theorists helps us understand the significance of multiperspectival approach and its implications on rhetorical theory and criticism.

2. How did the Young Lords use ideographically? And how in that use, according to Wanzer, did they change its ideological content in some significant ways? (Anzaldua can be discussed in reference to this question as well). You may also answer the following questions: How does Chavezas analysis of a coalition between a queer right and a migrant rights group force us to rethink how we identify with other people (e.g. strangers that constitute a people or peoples?

According to Enck-Wanzer he has a different perception or rather he defines ideograph differently from the other theorists. He asserts that" "Ideographs, then, can be understood as (a) the verbal, visual, and embodied symbolic repertoire that (b) is defined by, and in turn defines, the social imaginary, which (c) facilitates ideologically, historically, and doctrinally constrained modes of stranger relationality." (6). In comparison to McGee's definition, we see a great disparity in the differences. Enck-Wanzer begins by linking the rhetorical concepts of the ideograph to the significant social theory notion that supports the values of stranger relationship in the contemporary responsiveness. Furthermore, Enck-Wanzer turns to the critiques of the young lord's multiple remodelling of "the people" enclosed in verbal, textual, visual and embodied performative ideographic intrusion in particular geography of the church, thus, dissociating the distinctive ideograph from the hegemonic individualistic contemporary frame of the U.S.

In reference to ideographically, Anzaldua in her foundation book, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (1987), talks of mestizaje, which means fusion of cultures, which gets conflated as the races mix. Chavez prefers using coalition instead of alliance because he believes that the former is more flexible. Even though most feminist that supports coalition explains coalition as temporal and alliance as permanent, Chavez believes that coalition is long-term or rather portray a political relationship that is temporal. Chavez description follows Maria Lugones description, who thinks of coalition in relation to enmeshing oppressions as "always the horizon that rearranges both our possibilities and the conditions of those possibilities." Therefore, based on this description, coalition is something that people build, and a filled vacuum that facilitates engagement with other people. Feminists have always made us believe that coalition is difficult.

Queer and migrant activists always attempts to look for an adequate space that facilitates engagement based on evolving a mutual understanding of the interconnected aspects of homophobia and xenophobia, for instance. This circumstance can cause disparities between groups. Activists identify queers and migrants as comprised through jointly resonant and interrelated discourses, and they use these relations to strengthen coalition development. Even though, Chavez intention was not to describe how coalition works on the activisms they relate with, he demonstrates how it seemingly divides social justice organizations into a connection with each other. By looking at the way, activists perceives, political and legal rhetoric about queer and migrant subjects, Chavez illustrates how one obtains a more prolific understanding of the explanations that rises to develop a coalition between the migrant and queer rights movements.

3. What is the public sphere and why is it important according to Goodnight and Fraser? What are some of the threats to it (e.g., rise of technical expertise, informal exclusions based on gender, race, and class)? Threats to public sphere according to Goodnight and Fraser. In addition, what are ways in which various groups have sought to overcome these exclusions? For this last question, you can think about examples from the readings how, for instance, did the Young Lords struggle involvement in the public sphere? What is the role of enclaves in forming coalitions between groups in order to then actively participate in public policy debates?

According to Goodnight and Fraser, a public sphere is a space through which the aspect of public point-of-view sets the states in line with the demands of the society. This is a great engagement based on the public policy that facilities representation numerous opinions and controlled wide range of skills, especially on key issues. In addition, Goodnight and Fraser acknowledges the significance of public sphere by arguing that'. Deliberative Argument comprises the public sphere. In supporting their statement, Goodnights confirms that "The research of why doubts appear, what they mean, how they are banished only to be reformed, and what practices shape the course of future events is important, for knowledge of argument's varieties may illuminate the values, character, and blind spots of an era, society, or person." (216). This argument calls for the need for self-reflexivity and reveals Goodnight's sensitivity to the process of social change. In addition, they argue that, spheres are likely to amplify, contract, or even shift through deliberation. In essence, public sphere is very flexible and is subject to changes based on various reflections.

However, the various groups are subject to various changes as identified in 3(i) above and it is upon the various groups within these groups to engage in discussion of internal Rhetoric. Social seclusions is the major challenge that various groups suffers from, particularly women, and it is upon them to fight this vice and secure a space in the society. They should not wait for any other person or rather a group fight for them. Traditional, women have… [END OF PREVIEW]

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