Research Proposal: Ferguson, C., &amp Beaver, K. )

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Ferguson, C., & Beaver, K. (2009). Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 286-294.

How closely is the literature reviewed in the study related to previous literature?

The literature review is extremely comprehensive and contains references to articles that are closely linked to the various points that Ferguson and Beaver make in their article.

Is the review recent? Are there any outstanding references you know about that were left out?

The review is recent, but also sufficiently comprehensive that it does not omit any references of which I am aware.

Can you understand the statement of the problem?

Yes, the statement of the problem is clear.

Is there a rationale for why the study is an important one to do?

Yes, their rationale is to try to help prevent extreme violence.

Are the research hypotheses clearly stated?

Yes.

Are the hypotheses testable?

Not in a clinical manner; it is impossible to isolate the variables in a clinical setting, but case studies and other qualitative studies can provide support for the hypotheses.

14. Are the independent and dependent variables clearly defined?

No, because it is a qualitative study; it does not attempt to establish causation.

15. Is it clear how the study was conducted?

Yes.

17. Was the sample selected in such a way that you think it is representative of the population?

No, because it focuses on people who have exhibited extreme violence.

19. How similar are the subjects in the study to those that have been used in other similar studies?

They are very similar to the subjects in some similar studies.

20. Are the results related to the hypothesis?

Yes, the results attempt to explain the origins of extreme violence.

22. Is the discussion of the results consistent with the results?

Yes, the authors' conclusions are supported by their reported results.

24. Is the list of references current?

Yes.

25. Are the references consistent in their format?

Yes.

29. Is the report clearly written and understandable?

Yes, but it is directed towards an audience with a college-level reading comprehension ability.

30. Is the language unbiased (nonsexist and relatively culture free)?

No, because it is describing behavior that is non-normative, the language in the report incorporates cultural norms, which reflects bias against the people labeled as nonconforming.

Miles, D. & Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 207-217.

1. How closely is the literature reviewed in the study related to previous literature?

The literature review is extremely comprehensive and contains references to articles that discuss both nature and nurture, the two foci of the article.

2. Is the review recent? Are there any outstanding references you know about that were left out?

The review is recent and appears to be comprehensive. It does not contain all of the references in other similar articles, but the omissions do not appear to be meaningful.

3. Can you understand the statement of the problem?

Yes, the statement of the problem is clear.

8. Is there a rationale for why the study is an important one to do?

Yes, the rationale is to attempt to figure out the environmental triggers that interact with genetic predispositions towards aggression.

9. Are the research hypotheses clearly stated?

Yes. The hypotheses are that genetics will influence aggression, but will not be determinative.

10. Are the hypotheses testable?

The answer to this is a qualified yes. They are testable. This is a qualitative study that does not purport to test them in a laboratory environment, but laboratory tests with random assignment could be done to test the hypothesis.

14. Are the independent and dependent variables clearly defined?

No, because it is a qualitative study; it does not attempt to establish causation and does not define independent and dependent variables. However, the areas investigated in the study are clearly defined.

15. Is it clear how the study was conducted?

Yes; it was a meta-analysis of earlier studies.

17. Was the sample selected in such a way that you think it is representative of the population?

No; twin studies are never representative of the general population.

19. How similar are the subjects in the study to those that have been used in other similar studies?

They are very similar to the subjects in some similar studies, as many genetic-based studies focus on twin-studies.

20. Are the results related to the hypothesis?

Yes, the results investigate genetics and the impact of environment.

22. Is the discussion of the results consistent with the results?

Yes, the authors' conclusions are supported by their reported results.

24. Is the list of references current?

Yes.

25. Are the references consistent in their format?

Yes.

29. Is the report clearly written and understandable?

Yes, it is clearly written and should be understandable for those with a high-school level education.

30. Is the language unbiased (nonsexist and relatively culture free)?

No, because it is describing behavior that is non-normative, the language in the report incorporates cultural norms, which reflects bias against the people labeled as nonconforming. However, the authors are careful to point out that the existing cultural bias towards aggressive behavior is not necessarily warranted.

Mitchell, J. (2005). Biological determinants of mens rea: When choice fails to compensate for biopsychological perseveration. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 20(1), 35-

49.

1. How closely is the literature reviewed in the study related to previous literature?

The literature review focuses on the evolution of the concept of mens rea throughout time as well as the genetic basis of criminal behavior and appears to be highly related to the study.

2. Is the review recent? Are there any outstanding references you know about that were left out?

The review is recent and appears to be comprehensive. Because the concept of mens rea is hundreds of years old, and the idea of criminality being genetic has been around for almost 150 years, I am certain that there are omissions in the literature review, but I do not know if these are meaningful. It appears to be comprehensive and thorough.

3. Can you understand the statement of the problem?

Yes, the statement of the problem is clear and is based on whether it is fair to assume a criminal mens rea in people who may biologically lack capacity to form that mental state.

8. Is there a rationale for why the study is an important one to do?

Yes, the rationale is to attempt to achieve fairness in the criminal justice system.

9. Are the research hypotheses clearly stated?

Yes. The hypotheses are that genetics will influence aggression, and therefore the ability to form the requisite mens rea to support a criminal conviction.

10. Are the hypotheses testable?

No, but they can be supported through qualitative evidence.

14. Are the independent and dependent variables clearly defined?

No.

15. Is it clear how the study was conducted?

Yes; it was literature review.

17. Was the sample selected in such a way that you think it is representative of the population?

No; it focused on mentally ill and criminal populations .

19. How similar are the subjects in the study to those that have been used in other similar studies?

They are very similar to the subjects in some similar studies, but not similar to people in other studies. Some mentally ill people may be more prone to criminal behavior, but not all are.

20. Are the results related to the hypothesis?

Yes, the author links all of the results to the concept of mens rea.

22. Is the discussion of the results consistent with the results?

Yes, the author's conclusions are supported by his reported results.

24. Is the list of references current?

Yes. While the references list contains many older references, it also includes recent scholarship.

25. Are the references consistent in their format?

Yes.

29. Is the report clearly written and understandable?

The report is very academic and can be difficult to understand.

30. Is the language unbiased (nonsexist and relatively culture free)?

No, because it is describing behavior that is non-normative, the language in the report incorporates cultural norms, which reflects bias against the people labeled as nonconforming, particularly against those who engage in behavior that society has labeled as criminal.

Van Goozen, S., Fridja, N., & van de Poll, N. (1994). Anger and aggression in women:

Influence of sports choice and testosterone administration. Aggressive Behavior, 20(3), 213-222.

1. How closely is the literature reviewed in the study related to previous literature?

I would say that it is somewhat closely related to previous literature, simply because there is not an abundance of research on the impact of male hormones on female-to-male transsexuals.

2. Is the review recent? Are there any outstanding references you know about that were left out?

The review is recent and appears to be comprehensive.

3. Can you understand the statement of the problem?

Yes, the statement of the problem is clear and examines two separate issues: the impact of androgen… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Ferguson, C., &amp Beaver, K. ).  (2013, March 15).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ferguson-c-beaver-k-2009-natural/9424156

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"Ferguson, C., &amp Beaver, K. )."  Essaytown.com.  March 15, 2013.  Accessed July 18, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ferguson-c-beaver-k-2009-natural/9424156.