Fifth of All Americans Term Paper

Pages: 7 (2379 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children

Lessenberrry and Rehfeldt, (2004) state "that further evidence of the scale's reliability and validity, the tool is likely to be eligible for recommendation in clinical use."

While it does not directly measure stress, the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction Scale is appropriate to measure the parents' current level of satisfaction with the parenting experience associated with caring for a child with disabilities. This instrument is helpful in potentially allowing professionals to identify attitudes and emotions that may directly affect parenting behaviors. Lessenberrry and Rehfeldt (2004) explain "that it was developed through the examination of existing attitude assessments and the responses to a survey that asked parents what three factors they believe contributed to satisfaction in the parenting role, and what three factors they believe contributed to dissatisfaction in the parenting role."

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The intervention program not only addresses the child, but also the parents and their role in the child developmental process. Services and support are then specified and thus the stress level of the family may then find some improvement while also increasing the well-being of both the child and the entire family. Parents and family members may be taught how to effectively deal with the disabled child's characteristics that might prove to be a challenge. Behaviors, reduced intellectual functioning, physical limitations, deficits in self-care skills, and limited social skills are a few characteristics that may be focused upon, but as the child displays different challenging behavior, the specialists will intervene and help learn how to cope with the concern. Insecurities and fears regarding the child's projection for improvement and the social stigma also affects the family's stress levels. Research supports the concept that a parent's stress influences a child's development and the effectiveness of treatment programs (Mahoney et al., 1998). Studies also observed that that increased parent stress levels counteracted the quality of interactions with the child, thus decreasing improvement in the child's development.

Term Paper on Fifth of All Americans Have Assignment

With improved legislation, parents now have better access to organizations, and federal government programs that address the special needs of children who have disabilities. Speech therapy, physical therapy, and early educational programs may address the individual needs of the child. Inclusion has become the reality within the public school system. Exceptional children having developmental disabilities are now included within the regular education setting and taught along side of their peers under the umbrella of Special Education. However, Special Education classrooms also exist to meet the needs of severely handicapped children or those with extreme learning disabilities. Educational aides assist the disabled child with their studies and work assignments, and modifications are made according to their Individualized Educational Plan (IEP).

Historically, children with disabilities did not attend school until they were 6 or seven years old. Now, programs such as Head Start meet the needs of preschool children with disabilities. Most educators now believe and know that children with disabilities need special attention early in life with many special education services for some children begin soon after birth. With inclusion, children with disabilities and nondisabled children are now taught together. Research now indicates that isolating children with disabilities may create low self-esteem, thus reducing the child's ability to deal with other people. Another benefit to inclusion is allowing nondisabled children to learn about the personal courage and determination exhibited from children with disabilities (Fleischner, 2004).

A special needs classroom or resource room is equipped with resources to nurture each child's special needs. Assistive technology has allowed children with disabilities to advance their education and expand their independence. Modifications of various types equipment may be utilized to allow students to communicate, learn, and live their life more comfortably and help to reduce the barriers that are encountered on a routine basis. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 and the 1990 amendments aid to support special education by requiring the states to provide free special education for all children with disabilities from birth to 21 years of age. Children with disabilities are to also be taught in the "least restrictive environment" possible, while also providing for their special needs (Fleischner, 2004).

The disability rights movement will continue to grow and advocates for special needs children will continue fighting in order to achieve equitable access. While much as been accomplished through the work of the disability activists, more research and funding should be available to help those who have special needs and also support the families that love them. As a result of these and other advances, disability has become increasingly accepted as a natural part of the human experience.


Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.

Accessed March 30, 2004, from,

American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.

Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.

Cantu, C. (2004). Infant developmental screening: An overview. The Exceptional Parent, 34 (2) 45.

Fleischner, J. "Special education." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 30 Mar. 2004.

Mahoney, G., Boyce, G., Fewell, R.R., Spiker, D., & Wheeden, C.A. (1998). The… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Fifth of All Americans" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Fifth of All Americans.  (2004, March 30).  Retrieved September 21, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Fifth of All Americans."  30 March 2004.  Web.  21 September 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Fifth of All Americans."  March 30, 2004.  Accessed September 21, 2020.