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Final Review: Research MethodsChapter Writing

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Recordkeeping: Good science is reported to make a requirement of good record keeping since keeping good records support integrity and accountability in research studies. The records should be able to be understood by others and should have enough detail that another researcher that is skilled can repeat the same work with the same results.

Antecedent Variable: In statistics and social science research an antecedent variable is reported as a variable that assist in explaining the relationship that is seen between other variables that are to some degree in a relationship of cause and effect. When conducting a regression analysis, the antecedent variable is a variable that provides influence on the dependent and independent variable alike.

Causal vs. Spurious Relationships:A spurious relationship can be conceptualized as follows:

Where X is present both Y and Z are observed or in other words X causes both Y and Z. There is a spurious relationship between X and Y. A causal relationship occurs when the first event results in the second event's occurrence.

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis:A hypothesis makes a proposal to explain a phenomenon. A good hypothesis is one that the scientific method can use to test it.

Characteristics of a Good Research Question: A good research question is one that asks for information that can be answered within the realm of the research methodology.

Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge: Scientific knowledge is comprised by knowledge that is formulated by explanations that are testable in nature.

Characteristics of Small-N Designs: The characteristics of Small-N Designed research include that only one or a very few subjects are tested with the subjects not being placed into groups but handled in the research as individuals. Exceptions are long which enables stabilization in performance over time. Finally data from Ss are generally not combined but handled separately and there is visual analysis of data and inferential statistics are only used minimally.

Control Group: In a scientific study the control group is the group that receives no treatment although the experimental group does receive treatment. The control group is used to rid of alternate explanations arising from results of the experiment.

Correlation vs Causality: Correlation measures the relationship that exists between two variables or data values that are measured. Causality is the relationship between the cause and effect where the effect arises from the physical consequence of the cause.

DeductionInduction: Deduction is an approach in reasoning based on what is observed naturally. Induction is the move away from specifics to generalization.

Dependent variable: The dependent variable or the response variable.

Determinants of Causality: These are variables that either increase or bring about a decrease in risk.

Directional hypothesis: The directional hypothesis is one that is more specific since the researcher not only predicts the existence of a relationship but also goes further to predict the direction that relationship will take.

Ecological Fallacy: This is a fallacy that is logical when statistical data is interpreted concerning inferences in regards to individual's nature that are gained from the group these individuals belong to.

Ecological Inference: This is a process of using ecological data to make conclusions about behavior on the level of the individual.

Empirical: Empirical knowledge or research is science-based knowledge or research.

Empirical generalization: Empirical generalization involves a statement being made about regularities observed however; with no attempt to provide an explanation.

Episodic Record: Episodic records are unlike systematic forms of record keeping but instead are records that are preserved on a personal, casual or accidental level.

Ethical Considerations in Interviewing: Consent is required in order to observe ethics in interviewing and as well confidentiality is also a required consideration.

Examples of Observational Studies (case study, comparative, surveys, cross sectional aggregate, longitudinal time-series)

Observational studies may involve case studies of an individual, group or other subject. Comparative studies focus on comparing two or more groups, individuals or phenomenon. Surveys are formulated and either given in person or distributed and longitudinal studies are those that take place over a lengthy time period.

Explanatory: Just as it sounds, the explanatory study is focused on providing an explanation for some phenomenon.

Falsifiability: This is the degree that the data could be falsified.

Field Experiment: This is an experiment conducted in the natural setting of the subject or subjects.

Hypothesis; This is a statement of what the research expects to find.

Independent variable: This is the variable that the researcher varies or manipulates.

Level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio): Nominal measurement involves the numerical values labeling the attribute in a unique manner. Ordinal measure involves attributes being rank-ordered. Interval measurement measures the distance that exist between two attributes. Ratio measurement involves the existence of an absolute zero that contains important meaning and the use of a fraction must with a ratio variable is used.

Likert scale: The Likert scale is a 10 point scale in which the researcher asks the participants to score their answers on a scale of minus 1 to plus five with minus one being completely disagree and five being completely agree.

Mills Method of Difference: Mills method uses five responses to an experience in which all participants rate their experience and answer yes or no to the five questions. The degree of differences in the answers provide the methodology of determination in this method.

Multi-item measures (Indexes and Scales): Multiple-Item measures are those that ask more than one question about a subject. For example it might ask: (1) How likely are you to purchase accessories for clothing you own in the next month; and (2) How likely are you to have alterations done to clothing you own in the next month. An index is a type of measure that serves to provide a summary and rank-order to observations that are specific and is representative of a dimension that is more general while an index is a compilation of scored items from various individual items.

Normative vs Empirical: normative means that which is standard or the norm while empirical refers to science-based knowledge or research.

Operationalize: this is an expression of the terms or methods used to determine the results.

Parsimony: abject unwillingness to make use of available resources

Peer Review: review of research study by the scientific community.

Plagiarism (types): Plagiarism comes in multiple forms including using someone else's words or ideas without giving them credit in the publication.

PolicyIntervention Analysis: this is an analysis conducted prior to beginning a push for changes in policy matter or intervention methods.

Positive relationship: this terms is used to describe variables in research that are definitely connected or causative.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methodology: Qualitative methodology makes use of social research methods such as surveys, interviews, and focus group studies and observation and uses a descriptive form of relating the research. Quantitative research however, uses statistical testing and scientific formulas to measure the results in research.

Quotes, Summary, Paraphrase: Quotes are when the writer directly quotes the precise words of another writer. These words are placed in quotation marks and the author's last name, year of publication and page number cited in para theses at the end of the quote. A summary is when the entirety of a study is briefly stated. Paraphrasing is stating what the original author stated but using different words or word combinations. When one paraphrases one must still state the author's last name and year of publication following the paraphrased text but one is not required to state the page number.

Reliability: there are several types of reliability including test-retest reliability which measures reliability through giving the same test twice to a group of people and then correlating the scores from the two tests in establishing the stability of the test across time. There are also parallel forms of reliability which is a measure of reliability gained by giving varying versions of a test to the same group of people and then correlating the scores. Inter-rater reliability is another measure of reliability which is utilized to determine to which the various raters agree in the decisions of assessment.

Running Record: A running record is a systematic method of record keeping during research and it is also an informal method of record keeping that occurs naturally.

Scholarly and non-Scholarly Sources: Scholar sources are those located in peer-reviewed academic and professional journal publications or government publications.

Scholarly text v. non-scholarly text: This is the text contained within scholarly sources or alternatively text in sources that are not peer-reviewed academic or professional publications.

Steps in a Classical Randomized Experiment: the steps in a classical randomized experiment include: random assigning of individuals to treatment or control groups; (2) administering of the pre-test to both groups; (3) making sure that both groups have the same experience in the same conditions and that the experimental group is on the receiving end of the treatment; (4) administering the post-test to both groups; and (5) conduction of assessment on the amount of change on the dependent variable's value from pre- to post-test for each group and this is accomplished… [END OF PREVIEW]

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