Thesis: Fire Oxidation and Fire Science

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The best way to prevent the damage caused by the fire is to carry out the public education, implement the pre-incident planning, disaster and large incident response plan.

2, Fire Prevention

The best strategy to enhance public safety is to prevent the fire from causing a hazard. Fire prevention is the role of fire department that involves educating the public to take preventive measure to avoid the fire outbreak. Delmar (2008) argues that "preservation of life and property the cardinal mission of the fire service, and prevention is the most effective method of achieving the goal." (p 659).

Public Education

The public education is a proactive measure to prevent the potentially harmful effects of fire and reducing damage and emergencies caused by fire. "Under Section 19 of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 (the 2005 Act)" (OSHA, 2015 p 1), it is mandatory for every employer to carry a fire risk assessment and store the findings in the company's Safety Statement. The risk assessment should include fire prevention, fire warning and detection, firefighting and emergency escape. Fire prevention triangle consists of oxygen, heat and fuel. Fire requires heat, fuel and oxygen to spread, and without one or more of these elements, it will be impossible for fire to spread or start. A key prevention strategy is to remove one or more of fuel, heat or oxygen. To prevent the eventual outbreak of fire, it is critical to provide the public education to enhance their greater understanding of the strategy to prevent fire at home or organization.

Prestemon, et al. (2010) argue that wildfire prevention involves using varieties of education strategies that include distributing brochures, public service announcements, and making presentations intended to prevent the outbreak of wildfires. Poisson model has been identified as an effective strategy to manage fire and prevent wildfire. The model identifies the public education as an effective strategy to manage fire and prevent the outbreak of wildfire. The Poisson model is statistically significant and the benefits exceed the costs incurred to implement the model. The goal of WPE (wildfire prevention education) is to prevent accidental ignition that causes a wildfire. The WPE is also aimed to prevent undesirable fire activity. In the last few years, the U.S. government has devoted a lot of resources to educate the public about the dangers associated with the accidental fire setting. (Hermansen-Baez, et al. 2013). The ignition of wildfire is provoked through various mechanisms that include equipment malfunctions, brush-clearing fires, debris fires, campfire escapes, vehicle sparking, fire play and crashes. Some of the causes the fires incidents can be prevented through the public education program to limit the conducts of people towards certain kind of activities.

The benefit of fire prevention education is demonstrated by the Florida government. Between 2002 and 2007, the Florida state government approved $500,000 annually for the wildfire prevention education, and the goal of the program was to prevent campfire escapes, debris-burning escapes, children playing with fire and other wildfires smoking materials. The government used the homeowner visits, media efforts, presentations, flyers and information brochures for the wildfire prevention education program. The program also mandated the public organizations, private organizations, and a private individual to install the smoke detectors to reduce the chance of fire outbreak. Essentially, the smoke detectors are effective in reducing the chance of mass causalities caused by fire. It is estimated that more than 900 lives will be saved annually with the aid of working smoke detectors

Fire Prevention - Water Supply

Water is a critical element for the firefighting operation, and the Water Supply dictates the extent of the fire flow capacity. Typically, the fire flow requirements are the volume of water needed to put out the fire. To effectively fight the fire, fire brigade needs a quantity of water and a large quantity of water is required to absorb the heat that fire produces. Water also cools the fuel and make its power below the ignition temperature.

There is a wide range of natural and manmade sources of water that the firefighter can use to fight fire in case of the fire breakout. However, it is essential to realize that water carries out a constant cycle of change. Sun can evaporate water and send it into the atmosphere. Moreover, water can condense into clouds and falls as rain. Some places have plenty of water why some places are between dry and rainy seasons. However, some areas are endowed with plenty of water, and although water may be frozen. Thus, the fire fighter should study the climate location of their areas and design appropriate strategy to source for water.

The ground water is one of the sources of water to prevent fire, and firefighters can have access to the ground water through wells or bore holes. Moreover, the fire brigade can source water from rain and collect it into the aquifers. Springs are the other sources of groundwater that flow over the surface. However, shallow wells are not advisable because it is prone to dryness, and contamination. On the hand, deep wells are more predictable for a constant supply of water and it has a lesser chance of being contaminated.

Another source of water for fire prevention is the surface water. Essentially, 75% of the earth are covered by water, and this water is found in the sea and oceans. Water can also be collected from man-made sources such as lakes, reservoirs, ponds, water tanks and swimming pool. However, mobile water apparatus is very important source of water for the fire brigade. The mobile water apparatus is essential for fighting small fires as well as fighting fires outbreak in the areas without a water supply. The water tender is the type of mobile water supply equipment used to fight fires. The tender that combines the portable water tanks can provide large quantity of water to fight a fire that breaks out on the ground surface. A water tender should have a small booster pump of 250 gpm, the fire pump should be at least 750 gpm and transfer pump at least 250 gpm.

It is also essential for the firefighter to have access to the water tank, cisterns and ponds. The want tank includes the underground water, elevated and ground level water. The water should have the hydrants for the drafting. The pond can also be developed for the fire protection in conjunction with the hydrants.

The water distribution system is critical for fire protection. The water distribution system components include a method of sourcing for water, treatment process, storage and distribution. However, it is essential to have a pumping station for a small ground water. The water can be supplied using the following method:

• Gravity water distribution method

• A direct pumping distribution method, and • The combination of gravity and direct distribution systems.

The goal of "Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is:

"To assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developed under the Act; by assisting and encouraging the States in their efforts to assure safe and healthful working conditions; by providing for research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health." (OSHA, 2015 p 2).

The law mandates that all organizations are to implement the safety procedure to suppress fire quickly in case of fire outbreak. Water is a critical element to suppress the fire, and adequate and abundant water supply is essential for fire service operations, and water must be available through the distribution system. The firefighter can source for water from fire sprinkler systems, fire standpipe systems, and from other water suppression system.

Another source of water from municipal water systems involves the distribution of water to the public. The municipal water systems are under the jurisdiction of the municipal water authority. The municipal systems also supply water to the private organizations or private property for the fire needs. The private property consists of the boundary between the public portion and privately-owned portion. On the other hand, private water system consists of pump, piping system and on-site tank. The on-site system is used to feed the private fire hydrants. However, in some rural areas where the water is not available, the only sources of water to fight fire are ponds, lakes, fountains, cisterns and swimming pools. Fire prevention also consists of multiple or single water sources connected to fire monitors, fire hydrants, and sprinkler systems. Water supplies for fire protection are referred as primary and secondary where the primary supplies do not require mechanical devices to supply water. However, secondary water supplies requiring using the mechanical devices such as fire pumps.

Fire Hydrants

Fire hydrants are another protective system against fire, and the fire hydrants allow the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Fire Oxidation and Fire Science.  (2017, May 13).  Retrieved July 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/fire-oxidation-science/1202369

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"Fire Oxidation and Fire Science."  Essaytown.com.  May 13, 2017.  Accessed July 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/fire-oxidation-science/1202369.